La necesidad de tomar en cuenta las diferencias de género | 31 MAR 19

Cuidados cardiovasculares específicos para las mujeres

Se destaca la necesidad de tener en cuenta aspectos del diagnóstico y el tratamiento de las enfermedades cardiovasculares que son específicos para las mujeres
Autor/a: Garcia M, Miller VM, Gulati M et al. Fuente: Mayo Clinic Proceedeings 2016;91:226-40. Focused Cardiovascular Care for Women: The Need and Role in Clinical Practice
INDICE:  1. Página 1 | 2. Referencias
Referencias

REFERENCIAS 

1. Mozaffarian D, Benjamin EJ, Go AS, et al. American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Heart disease and stroke statistics  2015 update: a report from the American Heart Association [published correction appears in Circulation. 2015].Circulation. 2015; 131(4):e29-e322.
2. Wilmot KA, O’Flaherty M, Capewell S, Ford ES, Vaccarino V. Coronary heart disease mortality declines in the United States from 1979 through 2011: evidence for stagnation in young adults, especially women. Circulation. 2015; 132(11):997-1002.
3. Shaw LJ, Bugiardini R, Merz CNB. Women and ischemic heart disease evolving knowledge. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 54(17): 1561-1575.
4. Towfighi A, Zheng L, Ovbiagele B. Sex-specific trends in midlife coronary heart disease risk and prevalence. Arch Intern Med. 2009; 169(19):1762-1766.
5. Ford ES, Capewell S. Coronary heart disease mortality among young adults in the U.S. from 1980 through 2002: concealed leveling of mortality rates. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007; 50(22): 2128-2132.
6. Nabel EG. Heart disease prevention in young women: sound-ing an alarm. Circulation. 2015; 132(11):989-991.
7. Mosca L, Hammond G, Mochari-Greenberger H, Towfighi A, Albert MA. Fifteen-year trends in awareness of heart disease in women: results of a 2012 American Heart Association national survey. Circulation. 2013; 127(11):1254-1263:e1251-e1229.
8. Kling JM, Miller VM, Mankad R, et al. Go Red for Women cardiovascular health-screening evaluation: the dichotomy between awareness and perception of cardiovascular risk in the community. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2013; 22(3): 210-218.
9. Mosca L, Ferris A, Fabunmi R, Robertson RM. American Heart Association. Tracking women’s awareness of heart disease: an American Heart Association national study. Circulation. 2004; 109(5):573-579.
10. Pregler J, Freund KM, Kleinman M, et al. The heart truth professional education campaign on women and heart disease: needs assessment and evaluation results. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2009; 18(10):1541-1547.
11. Institute of Medicine Committee. Women’s Health Research: Progress, Pitfalls, and Promise. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2010.
12. Miller VM, Best PJ. Implications for reproductive medicine: sex differences in cardiovascular disease. Sex Reprod Menopause. 2011; 9(3):21-28.
13. Barbour LA, McCurdy CE, Hernandez TL, Kirwan JP, Catalano PM, Friedman JE. Cellular mechanisms for insulin resistance in normal pregnancy and gestational diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2007;30 (suppl 2): S112-S119.
14. Roberts JM, Hubel CA. Pregnancy: a screening test for later life cardiovascular disease. Womens Health Issues. 2010; 20(5): 304-307.
15. Kessous R, Shoham-Vardi I, Pariente G, Sergienko R, Holcberg G, Sheiner E. Recurrent pregnancy loss: a risk factor for long-term maternal atherosclerotic morbidity? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014; 211(4):414.e1-414.e11.
16. Kessous R, Shoham-Vardi I, Pariente G, Holcberg G, Sheiner E. An association between preterm delivery and long-term maternal cardiovascular morbidity. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013; 209(4):368.e1-368.e8.
17. Männistö T, Mendola P, Vääräsmäki M, et al. Elevated blood pressure in pregnancy and subsequent chronic disease risk. Circulation. 2013; 127(6):681-690.
18. Rich-Edwards JW, Fraser A, Lawlor DA, Catov JM. Pregnancy characteristics and women’s future cardiovascular health: an underused opportunity to improve women’s health? Epidemiol Rev. 2014; 36:57-70.
19. Kew S, Ye C, Hanley AJ, et al. Cardiometabolic implications of postpartum weight changes in the first year after delivery. Diabetes Care. 2014; 37(7):1998-2006.
20. Mosca L, Benjamin EJ, Berra K, et al. Effectiveness-based guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in womend2011 update: a guideline from the American Heart Association [published corrections appear in Circulation. 2011; 123(22):e624 and Circulation. 2011; 124(16):e427]. Circulation. 2011; 123(11):1243-1262.
21. Wilson BJ, Watson MS, Prescott GJ, et al. Hypertensive diseases of pregnancy and risk of hypertension and stroke in later life: results from cohort study. BMJ. 2003; 326(7394):845.
22. Breetveld NM, Ghossein-Doha C, van Kuijk S, et al. Cardiovas-cular disease risk is only elevated in hypertensive, formerly preeclamptic women. BJOG. 2015; 122(8):1092-1100.
23. Shah BR, Retnakaran R, Booth GL. Increased risk of cardiovas-cular disease in young women following gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2008; 31(8):1668-1669.
24. Kim C, Newton KM, Knopp RH. Gestational diabetes and the incidence of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. Diabetes Care. 2002; 25(10):1862-1868.
25. Pearson GD, Veille JC, Rahimtoola S, et al. Peripartum cardio-myopathy: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and Office of Rare Diseases (National Institutes of Health) workshop recommendations and review. JAMA. 2000; 283(9):1183-1188.
26. Elkayam U. Clinical characteristics of peripartum cardiomyopathy in the United States: diagnosis, prognosis, and management. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011; 58(7):659-670.
27. McNamara DM, Elkayam U, Alharethi R, et al; IPAC Investigators. Clinical outcomes for peripartum cardiomyopathy in North America: results of the IPAC Study (Investigations of Pregnancy-Associated Cardiomyopathy). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015; 66(8):905-914.
28. Sliwa K, Hilfiker-Kleiner D, Petrie MC, et al. Heart Failure As-sociation of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Peripartum Cardiomyopathy. Current state of knowledge on aetiology, diagnosis, management, and therapy of peripartum cardiomyopathy: a position statement from the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on peripartum cardiomyopathy. Eur J Heart Fail. 2010; 12(8):767-778.
29. National Institutes of Health, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed). http://toxnet.nlm.nih. gov/newtoxnet/lactmed.htm. Accessed March 11, 2015.
30. Tomasulo P. LactMed-new NLM database on drugs and lactation. Med Ref Serv Q. 2007; 26(1):51-58.
31. Safirstein JG, Ro AS, Grandhi S, Wang L, Fett JD, Staniloae C. Predictors of left ventricular recovery in a cohort of peripar-tum cardiomyopathy patients recruited via the internet. Int J Cardiol. 2012; 154(1):27-31.
32. Elkayam U. Risk of subsequent pregnancy in women with a history of peripartum cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014; 64(15):1629-1636.
33. March WA, Moore VM, Willson KJ, Phillips DI, Norman RJ, Davies MJ. The prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome in a community sample assessed under contrasting diagnostic criteria. Hum Reprod. 2010; 25(2):544-551.
34. Daan NM, Louwers YV, Koster MP, et al. Cardiovascular and metabolic profiles amongst different polycystic ovary syndrome phenotypes: who is really at risk? Fertil Steril. 2014; 102(5):1444-1451.e3.
35. Palacios S, Henderson VW, Siseles N, Tan D, Villaseca P. Age of menopause and impact of climacteric symptoms by geographical region. Climacteric. 2010; 13(5):419-428.
36. Haberl R, Becker A, Leber A, et al. Correlation of coronary calcification and angiographically documented stenoses in patients with suspected coronary artery disease: results of 1,764 patients. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001; 37(2):451-457.
37. Devries S, Wolfkiel C, Fusman B, et al. Influence of age and gender on the presence of coronary calcium detected by ultrafast computed tomography. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995; 25(1):76-82.
38. Shuster LT, Rhodes DJ, Gostout BS, Grossardt BR, Rocca WA. Premature menopause or early menopause: long-term health consequences. Maturitas. 2010; 65(2): 161-166.
39. Dubey RK, Imthurn B, Barton M, Jackson EK. Vascular consequences of menopause and hormone therapy: importance of timing of treatment and type of estrogen. Cardiovasc Res. 2005; 66(2):295-306.
40. Hsia J, Langer RD, Manson JE, et al. Women’s Health Initiative Investigators. Conjugated equine estrogens and coronary heart disease: the Women’s Health Initiative [published correction appears in Arch Intern Med. 2006; 166(7):759]. Arch Intern Med. 2006; 166(3):357-365.
41. Grodstein F, Stampfer M. The epidemiology of coronary heart disease and estrogen replacement in postmenopausal women. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 1995; 38(3):199-210.
42. Manson JE, Chlebowski RT, Stefanick ML, et al. Menopausal hormone therapy and health outcomes during the intervention and extended poststopping phases of the Women’s Health Initiative randomized trials. JAMA. 2013; 310(13): 1353-1368.
43. Manson JE, Allison MA, Rossouw JE, et al; WHI and WHI-CACS Investigators. Estrogen therapy and coronary-artery calcification. N Engl J Med. 2007; 356(25):2591-2602.
44. Reslan OM, Khalil RA. Vascular effects of estrogenic menopausal hormone therapy. Rev Recent Clin Trials. 2012; 7(1): 47-70.
45. Ushioda M, Makita K, Takamatsu K, Horiguchi F, Aoki D. Serum lipoprotein(a) dynamics before/after menopause and long-term effects of hormone replacement therapy on lipoprotein(a) levels in middle-aged and older Japanese women. Horm Metab Res. 2006; 38(9):581-586.
46. Christodoulakos GE, Lambrinoudaki IV, Panoulis CP, Papadias CA, Kouskouni EE, Creatsas GC. Effect of hormone replacement therapy, tibolone and raloxifene on serum lipids, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein(a) in Greek postmenopausal women. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2004; 18(5):244-257.
47. Sumino H, Ichikawa S, Itoh H, et al. Hormone replacement therapy decreases insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in Japanese postmenopausal women with impaired and normal glucose tolerance. Horm Res. 2003; 60(3):134-142.
48. Ayres S, Abplanalp W, Liu JH, Subbiah MT. Mechanisms involved in the protective effect of estradiol-17beta on lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Am J Physiol. 1998; 274(6 Pt 1):E1002-E1008.
49. Orshal JM, Khalil RA. Gender, sex hormones, and vascular tone. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004; 286(2): R233-R249. 
50. Khalil RA. Estrogen, vascular estrogen receptor and hormone therapy in postmenopausal vascular disease. Biochem Pharma-col. 2013; 86(12):1627-1642. 
51. U.S.Preventive Services Task Force. Final Recommendation Statement Menopausal Hormone Therapy: Preventive Medication, October 2012. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/ age/Document/RecommendationStatementFinal/menopausal-hormone-therapy-preventive-medication. Accessed  August 24, 2015. 
52. North American Menopause Society. The 2012 hormone therapy position statement of: The North American Meno-pause Society. Menopause. 2012; 19(3):257-271. 
53. Harman SM, Black DM, Naftolin F, et al. Arterial imaging outcomes and cardiovascular risk factors in recently menopausal women: a randomized trialcardiovascular disease and menopausal hormone therapy. Ann Intern Med. 2014; 161(4): 249-260. 
54. Hodis HN, Mack WJ, Shoupe D, et al. Methods and baseline cardiovascular data from the Early versus Late Intervention Trial with Estradiol testing the menopausal hormone timing hypothesis. Menopause. 2015; 22(4):391-401.
55. Brewer LC, Svatikova A, Mulvagh SL. The challenges of pre-vention, diagnosis and treatment of ischemic heart disease in women. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2015; 29(4):355-368.
56. Bairey Merz CN, Shaw LJ, Reis SE, et al; WISE Investigators. Insights from the NHLBI-Sponsored Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Study, part II: gender differences in presentation, diagnosis, and outcome with regard to gender-based pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and macro-vascular and microvascular coronary disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006; 47(3 suppl):S21-S29.
57. Agrawal S, Van Eyk J, Sobhani K, Wei J, Bairey Merz CN. Sex, myocardial infarction, and the failure of risk scores in women. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2015; 24(11):859-861.
58. Gulati M, Shaw LJ, Bairey Merz CN. Myocardial ischemia in women: lessons from the NHLBI WISE study. Clin Cardiol. 2012; 35(3):141-148. 
59. Dickerson JA, Nagaraja HN, Raman SV. Gender-related differences in coronary artery dimensions: a volumetric analysis. Clin Cardiol. 2010; 33(2):E44-E49. 
60. Sun H, Mohri M, Shimokawa H, Usui M, Urakami L, Takeshita A. Coronary microvascular spasm causes myocardial ischemia in patients with vasospastic angina. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002; 39(5):847-851. 
61. Miwa K, Fujita M, Miyagi Y. Beneficial effects of smoking cessation on the short-term prognosis for variant angina validation of the smoking status by urinary cotinine measure-ments. Int J Cardiol. 1994; 44(2):151-156. 
62. Akashi YJ, Goldstein DS, Barbaro G, Ueyama T. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: a new form of acute, reversible heart failure. Circulation. 2008; 118(25):2754-2762. 
63. Templin C, Ghadri JR, Diekmann J, et al. Clinical features and outcomes of takotsubo (stress) cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med. 2015; 373(10):929-938. 
64. Gianni M, Dentali F, Grandi AM, Sumner G, Hiralal R, Lonn E. Apical ballooning syndrome or takotsubo cardiomyopathy: a systematic review. Eur Heart J. 2006; 27(13): 1523-1529.
65. Saw J, Aymong E, Mancini GB, Sedlak T, Starovoytov A, Ricci D. Nonatherosclerotic coronary artery disease in young women. Can J Cardiol. 2014; 30(7):814-819. 
66. Nishiguchi T, Tanaka A, Ozaki Y, et al. Prevalence of spontaneous coronary artery dissection in patients with acute coronary syndrome [published online ahead of print September 11, 2013]. Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care doi: 10.1177/2048872613504310. 
67. Elkayam U, Jalnapurkar S, Barakkat MN, et al. Pregnancy-associated acute myocardial infarction: a review of contemporary experience in 150 cases between 2006 and 2011. Circulation. 2014; 129(16):1695-1702. 
68. Saw J, Ricci D, Starovoytov A, Fox R, Buller CE. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection: prevalence of predisposing conditions including fibromuscular dysplasia in a tertiary center cohort. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2013; 6(1):44-52. 
69. Liang JJ, Prasad M, Tweet MS, et al. A novel application of CT angiography to detect extracoronary vascular abnormalities in patients with spontaneous coronary artery dissection. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 2014; 8(3):189-197. 
70. Goel K, Tweet M, Olson TM, Maleszewski JJ, Gulati R, Hayes SN. Familial spontaneous coronary artery dissection: evidence for genetic susceptibility. JAMA Intern Med. 2015; 175(5):821-826. 
71. Eleid MF, Guddeti RR, Tweet MS, et al. Coronary artery tortuosity in spontaneous coronary artery dissection: angiographic characteristics and clinical implications. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2014; 7(5):656-662. 
72. Tweet MS, Hayes SN, Pitta SR, et al. Clinical features, management, and prognosis of spontaneous coronary artery dissection. Circulation. 2012; 126(5):579-588. 
73. Alfonso F, Paulo M, Lennie V, et al. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection: long-term follow-up of a large series of patients prospectively managed with a “conservative” therapeutic strategy. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2012; 5(10):1062-1070. 
74. Tweet MS, Eleid MF, Best PJ, et al. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection: revascularization versus conservative therapy. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2014; 7(6):777-786.
75. Silber TC, Tweet MS, Bowman MJ, Hayes SN, Squires RW. Cardiac rehabilitation after spontaneous coronary artery dissection. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2015; 35(5):328-333. 76. Tweet MS, Hayes SN, Gulati R, Rose CH, Best PJ. Pregnancy after spontaneous coronary artery dissection: a case series. Ann Intern Med. 2015; 162(8):598-600. 
77. McDermott MM, Ferrucci L, Guralnik JM, et al. The ankle-brachial index is associated with the magnitude of impaired walking endurance among men and women with peripheral arterial disease [published correction appears in Vasc Med. 2010; 15(6):517]. Vasc Med. 2010; 15(4):251-257. 
78. McDermott MM, Greenland P, Liu K, et al. Sex differences in peripheral arterial disease: leg symptoms and physical functioning. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003; 51(2):222-228. 79. McDermott MM, Greenland P, Guralnik JM, et al. Depressive symptoms and lower extremity functioning in men and women with peripheral arterial disease. J Gen Intern Med. 2003; 18(6):461-467. 
80. McDermott MM, Feinglass J, Slavensky R, Pearce WH. The ankle-brachial index as a predictor of survival in patients with peripheral vascular disease. J Gen Intern Med. 1994; 9(8): 445-449. 
81. Hirsch AT, Allison MA, Gomes AS, et al; American Heart Association Council on Peripheral Vascular Disease; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention; Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; Council on Clinical Cardiology; Council on Epidemiology and Prevention. A call to action: women and peripheral artery disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2012; 125(11):1449-1472. 
82. Barochiner J, Aparicio LS, Waisman GD. Challenges associated with peripheral arterial disease in women. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2014; 10:115-128. 
83. McDermott MM, Fried L, Simonsick E, Ling S, Guralnik JM. Asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease is independently associated with impaired lower extremity functioning: the women’s health and aging study [published correction appears
84. McDermott MM, Greenland P, Liu K, et al. Leg symptoms in peripheral arterial disease: associated clinical characteristics and functional impairment. JAMA. 2001; 286(13):1599-1606.
85. Van Den Bosch MA, Kemmeren JM, Tanis BC, et al. The RATIO study: oral contraceptives and the risk of peripheral arterial disease in young women. J Thromb Haemost. 2003; 1(3):439-444. 
86. Weissgerber TL, Turner ST, Bailey KR, et al. Hypertension in pregnancy is a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease decades after pregnancy. Atherosclerosis. 2013; 229(1): 212-216.
87. Hirsch AT, Criqui MH, Treat-Jacobson D, et al. Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care. JAMA. 2001; 286(11):1317-1324.
88. Aboyans V, Criqui MH, Abraham P, et al; American Heart As-sociation Council on Peripheral Vascular Disease; Council on Epidemiology and Prevention; Council on Clinical Cardiology; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention, and Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia. Measurement and interpretation of the ankle-brachial index: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association [published correction appears in Circulation. 2013; 127(1):e264]. Circulation. 2012; 126(24): 2890-2909. 
89. Wisman PP, Tangelder MJ, van Hattum ES, de Borst GJ, Moll FL. Young women with PAD are at high risk of cardiovascular complications. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2012; 43(4): 441-445.
90. Lo RC, Bensley RP, Dahlberg SE, et al. Presentation, treatment, and outcome differences between men and women undergoing revascularization or amputation for lower extremity peripheral arterial disease. J Vasc Surg. 2014; 59(2):409-418.e3.
91. Hirsch AT, Haskal ZJ, Hertzer NR, et al; American Association for Vascular Surgery; Society for Vascular Surgery; Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions; Society for Vascular Medicine and Biology; Society of Interventional Radiology; ACC/AHA Task Force on Practice Guidelines Writing Committee to Develop Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease; American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Society for Vascular Nursing; TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus; Vascular Disease Foundation. ACC/AHA 2005 Practice Guidelines for the management of patients with peripheral arterial disease (lower extremity, renal, mesenteric, and abdominal aortic): a collaborative report from the American Association for Vascular Surgery/Society for Vascular Surgery, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society for Vascular Medicine and Biology, Society of Interventional Radiology, and the ACC/AHA Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Develop Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease): endorsed by the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Society for Vascular Nursing; TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus; and Vascular Disease Foundation. Circulation. 2006; 113(11):e463-e654.
92. Scantlebury DC, Borlaug BA. Why are women more likely than men to develop heart failure with preserved ejection fraction? Curr Opin Cardiol. 2011; 26(6):562-568. 
93. Arain FA, Kuniyoshi FH, Abdalrhim AD, Miller VM. Sex/gender medicine: the biological basis for personalized care in cardio-vascular medicine. Circ J. 2009; 73(10):1774-1782. 94. Greiten LE, Holditch SJ, Arunachalam SP, Miller VM. Should there be sex-specific criteria for the diagnosis and treatment of heart failure? J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2014; 7(2):139-155. 
95. Redfield MM, Chen HH, Borlaug BA, et al. RELAX Trial. Effect of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibition on exercise capacity and clinical status in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2013; 309(12):1268-1277.
96. LeWinter MM, Meyer M. Mechanisms of diastolic dysfunction in heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction: if it’s not one thing it’s another. Circ Heart Fail. 2013; 6(6):1112-1115.
97. Raj SR. Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS). Circulation. 2013; 127(23):2336-2342.
98. Garland EM, Raj SR, Black BK, Harris PA, Robertson D. The hemodynamic and neurohumoral phenotype of postural tachycardia syndrome. Neurology. 2007; 69(8):790-798. 
99. Low PA, Sandroni P, Joyner M, Shen WK. Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS). J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2009; 20(3): 352-358. 
100. Poli D, Antonucci E. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of atrial fibrillation in women. Int J Womens Health. 2015; 7:605-614. 
101. Bushnell C, McCullough LD, Awad IA, et al; American Heart Association Stroke Council; Council on Cardiovascu-lar and Stroke Nursing; Council on Clinical Cardiology; Council on Epidemiology and Prevention; Council for High Blood Pressure Research. Guidelines for the prevention of stroke in women: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association [published corrections appear in Stroke. 2014; 45(10):e214 and Stroke. 2014;45(5):e95]. Stroke. 2014; 45(5):1545-1588.
102. Friberg L, Benson L, Rosenqvist M, Lip GY. Assessment of female sex as a risk factor in atrial fibrillation in Sweden: nationwide retrospective cohort study. BMJ. 2012; 344:e3522. 
103. Reeves MJ, Fonarow GC, Zhao X, Smith EE, Schwamm LH. Get With The Guidelines-Stroke Steering Committee & In-vestigators. Quality of care in women with ischemic stroke in the GWTG program. Stroke. 2009; 40(4):1127-1133.
104. Ong KL, Tso AW, Lam KS, Cheung BM. Gender difference in blood pressure control and cardiovascular risk factors in Americans with diagnosed hypertension. Hypertension. 2008; 51(4):1142-1148. 
105. Solomon DH, Karlson EW, Rimm EB, et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in women diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. Circulation. 2003; 107(9):1303-1307.
106. Esdaile JM, Abrahamowicz M, Grodzicky T, et al. Traditional Framingham risk factors fail to fully account for accelerated atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2001; 44(10):2331-2337.
107. Wolfe F, Mitchell DM, Sibley JT, et al. The mortality of rheu-matoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1994;37(4):481-494.
108. Doria A, Iaccarino L, Ghirardello A, et al. Long-term prognosis and causes of death in systemic lupus erythematosus. Am J Med. 2006; 119(8):700-706.
109. Gonzalez-Gay MA, Gonzalez-Juanatey C, Martin J. Rheumatoid arthritis: a disease associated with accelerated atherogenesis. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2005; 35(1):8-17.
110. Libby P. Inflammation in atherosclerosis. Nature. 2002; 420(6917):868-874.
111. Westlake SL, Colebatch AN, Baird J, et al. The effect of methotrexate on cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic literature review. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2010; 49(2):295-307.
112. Guin A, Chatterjee Adhikari M, Chakraborty S,Sinhamahapatra P, GhoshA. Effects of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs on sub-clinical atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction which has been detected in early rheumatoid arthritis: 1-year follow-up study. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2013; 43(1):48-54.
113. Peters MJ, van Sijl AM, Voskuyl AE, Sattar N, Smulders YM, Nurmohamed MT. The effects of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors on cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis. Curr Pharm Des. 2012; 18(11):1502-1511.
114. Symmons DP, Gabriel SE. Epidemiology of CVD in rheumatic disease, with a focus on RA and SLE. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2011;7(7):399-408.
115. Myasoedova E, Crowson CS, Kremers HM, et al. Lipid paradox in rheumatoid arthritis: the impact of serum lipid measures and systemic inflammation on the risk of cardiovascular disease. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011; 70(3):482-487.
116. Kremers HM, Nicola PJ, Crowson CS, Ballman KV, Gabriel SE. Prognostic importance of low body mass index in relation to cardiovascular mortality in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2004; 50(11):3450-3457.
117. Crowson CS, Matteson EL, Roger VL, Therneau TM, Gabriel SE. Usefulness of risk scores to estimate the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Cardiol. 2012; 110(3):420-424.
118. Peters MJ, Symmons DP, McCarey D, et al. EULAR evidence-based recommendations for cardiovascular risk management in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other forms of inflammatory arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010; 69(2): 325-331.
119. Pham T, Gossec L, Constantin A, et al. Cardiovascular risk and rheumatoid arthritis: clinical practice guidelines based on published evidence and expert opinion. Joint Bone Spine. 2006; 73(4):379-387.
120. Rienstra M, Van Veldhuisen DJ, Hagens VE, et al; RACE Investigators. Gender-related differences in rhythm control treatment in persistent atrial fibrillation: data of the Rate Control Versus Electrical Cardioversion (RACE) study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005; 46(7):1298-1306.
121. Wolbrette D. Antiarrhythmic drugs: age, race, and gender effects. Card Electrophysiol Clin. 2010; 2(3):369-378.
122. Wang TY, Angiolillo DJ, Cushman M, et al. Platelet biology and response to antiplatelet therapy in women: implications for the development and use of antiplatelet pharmacotherapies for cardiovascular disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012; 59(10): 891-900.
123. Gu Q, Burt VL, Paulose-Ram R, Dillon CF. Gender differences in hypertension treatment, drug utilization patterns, and blood pressure control among US adults with hypertension: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Am J Hypertens. 2008; 21(7):789-798.
124. Lewis WR, Ellrodt AG, Peterson E, et al. Trends in the use of evidence-based treatments for coronary artery disease among women and the elderly: findings from the get with the guide-lines quality-improvement program. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Out-comes. 2009;2(6):633-641.
125. Chou AF, Scholle SH, Weisman CS, Bierman AS, Correa-de-Araujo R, Mosca L. Gender disparities in the quality of cardio-vascular disease care in private managed care plans. Womens Health Issues. 2007; 17(3):120-130.
126. Witt BJ, Jacobsen SJ, Weston SA, et al. Cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction in the community. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004; 44(5):988-996.
127. Suaya JA, Shepard DS, Normand SL, Ades PA, Prottas J, Stason WB. Use of cardiac rehabilitation by Medicare benefi-ciaries after myocardial infarction or coronary bypass surgery. Circulation. 2007; 116(15):1653-1662.
128. Puri R, Nissen SE, Shao M, et al. Sex-related differences of cor-onary atherosclerosis regression following maximally intensive statin therapy: insights from SATURN. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2014; 7(10):1013-1022.
129. Kostis WJ, Cheng JQ, Dobrzynski JM, Cabrera J, Kostis JB. Meta-analysis of statin effects in women versus men [published correction appears in J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012; 59(16): 1491]. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012; 59(6):572-582.
130. Cholesterol Treatment Trialists’ (CTT) Collaboration, Fulcher J, O’Connell R, Voysey M, et al. Efficacy and safety of LDL-lowering therapy among men and women: meta-analysis of individual data from 174,000 participants in 27 randomised trials. Lancet. 2015; 385(9976):1397-1405.
131. Gottlieb SS, McCarter RJ, Vogel RA. Effect of beta-blockade on mortality among high-risk and low-risk patients after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 1998; 339(8):489-497.
132. Go AS, Mozaffarian D, Roger VL, et al; American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Strokes Statistics Subcommittee. Executive summary: heart disease and stroke statisticsd2014 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2014; 129(3):399-410.
133. Daubert JP, Zareba W, Cannom DS, et al; MADIT II Investigators. Inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks in MADIT II: frequency, mechanisms, predictors, and survival impact. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008; 51(14):1357-1365.
134. Poisson SN, Johnston SC, Sidney S, Klingman JG, Nguyen-Huynh MN. Gender differences in treatment of severe carotid stenosis after transient ischemic attack. Stroke. 2010; 41(9): 1891-1895.
135. Smith CR, Leon MB, Mack MJ, et al; PARTNER Trial Investiga-tors. Transcatheter versus surgical aortic-valve replacement in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2011; 364(23):2187-2198.

 

Comentarios

Para ver los comentarios de sus colegas o para expresar su opinión debe ingresar con su cuenta de IntraMed.

AAIP RNBD
Términos y condiciones de uso | Todos los derechos reservados | Copyright 1997-2022