Pautas de diagnóstico y tratamiento | 11 OCT 21

Criptococosis asociada con HIV

Guía para la prevención y tratamiento de las infecciones oportunistas en personas con VIH.
INDICE:  1. Página 1 | 2. Referencias bibliográficas
Referencias bibliográficas

1. Aberg J, WG. P. Cryptococcosis. In: Secondary Aberg J, WG. P, ed^eds. Subsidiary Aberg J, WG. P, trans. Secondary Cryptococcosis. Vol. ed. New York, NY: Churcill Livingstone; 2002:498-510.

2. Mirza SA, Phelan M, Rimland D, et al. The changing epidemiology of cryptococcosis: an update from population-based active surveillance in 2 large metropolitan areas, 1992-2000. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36(6):789-794. Available at:

3. Rajasingham R, Smith RM, Park BJ, et al. Global burden of disease of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: an updated analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017;17(8):873-881. Available at:

4. Pyrgos V, Seitz AE, Steiner CA, Prevots DR, Williamson PR. Epidemiology of Cryptococcal Meningitis in the US: 1997-2009. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e56269. Available at:

5. Rhein J, Hullsiek KH, Evans EE, et al. Detrimental outcomes of unmasking cryptococcal meningitis with recent ART initiation. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2018;5(8):ofy122. Available at:

6. Graybill JR, Sobel J, Saag M, et al. Diagnosis and management of increased intracranial pressure in patients with AIDS and cryptococcal meningitis. The NIAID Mycoses Study Group and AIDS Cooperative Treatment Groups. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;30(1):47-54. Available at:

7. Bicanic T, Brouwer AE, Meintjes G, et al. Relationship of cerebrospinal fluid pressure, fungal burden and outcome in patients with cryptococcal meningitis undergoing serial lumbar punctures. AIDS. 2009;23(6):701-706. Available at:

8. Boulware DR, Rolfes MA, Rajasingham R, et al. Multisite validation of cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay and quantification by laser thermal contrast. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(1):45-53. Available at:

9. Ssebambulidde K, Bangdiwala AS, Kwizera R, et al. Symptomatic Cryptococcal Antigenemia Presenting as Early Cryptococcal Meningitis With Negative Cerebral Spinal Fluid Analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2019;68(12):2094-2098. Available at:

10. French N, Gray K, Watera C, et al. Cryptococcal infection in a cohort of HIV-1-infected Ugandan adults. AIDS. 2002;16(7):1031-1038. Available at:

11. Powderly WG, Cloud GA, Dismukes WE, Saag MS. Measurement of cryptococcal antigen in serum and cerebrospinal fluid: value in the management of AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. Clin Infect Dis. 1994;18(5):789-792. Available at:

12. Beyene T, Zewde AG, Balcha A, et al. Inadequacy of high-dose fluconazole monotherapy among cerebrospinal fluid cryptococcal antigen (CrAg)-positive human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons in an Ethiopian CrAg screening program. Clin Infect Dis. 2017;65(12):2126-2129. Available at:

13. Rajasingham R, Wake RM, Beyene T, Katende A, Letang E, Boulware DR. Cryptococcal Meningitis Diagnostics and Screening in the Era of Point-of-Care Laboratory Testing. J Clin Microbiol. 2019;57(1):In Press. doi: 10.1128/JCM.01238-01218. Available at:

14. Rhein J, Bahr NC, Hemmert AC, et al. Diagnostic performance of a multiplex PCR assay for meningitis in an HIV-infected population in Uganda. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2016;84(3):268-273. Available at:

15. Hanson KE, Slechta ES, Killpack JA, et al. Preclinical Assessment of a Fully Automated Multiplex PCR Panel for Detection of Central Nervous System Pathogens. J Clin Microbiol. 2016;54(3):785-787. Available at:

16. Leber AL, Everhart K, Balada-Llasat JM, et al. Multicenter Evaluation of BioFire FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel for Detection of Bacteria, Viruses, and Yeast in Cerebrospinal Fluid Specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2016;54(9):2251-2261. Available at:

17. O’Halloran JA, Franklin A, Lainhart W, Burnham CA, Powderly W, Dubberke E. Pitfalls Associated With the Use of Molecular Diagnostic Panels in the Diagnosis of Cryptococcal Meningitis. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2017;4(4):ofx242. Available at:

18. McKenney J, Bauman S, Neary B, et al. Prevalence, correlates, and outcomes of cryptococcal antigen positivity among patients with AIDS, United States, 1986-2012. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;60(6):959-965. Available at:

19. Powderly WG, Finkelstein D, Feinberg J, et al. A randomized trial comparing fluconazole with clotrimazole troches for the prevention of fungal infections in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. NIAID AIDS Clinical Trials Group. N Engl J Med. 1995;332(11):700-705. Available at:

20. McKinsey DS, Wheat LJ, Cloud GA, et al. Itraconazole prophylaxis for fungal infections in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection: randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group. Clin Infect Dis. 1999;28(5):1049-1056. Available at:

21. Hamill RJ, Sobel JD, El-Sadr W, et al. Comparison of 2 doses of liposomal amphotericin B and conventional amphotericin B deoxycholate for treatment of AIDS-associated acute cryptococcal meningitis: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial of efficacy and safety. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51(2):225-232. Available at:

22. Jarvis JN, Leeme TB, Molefi M, et al. Short-course High-dose Liposomal Amphotericin B for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-associated Cryptococcal Meningitis: A Phase 2 Randomized Controlled Trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2019;68(3):393-401. Available at:

23. van der Horst CM, Saag MS, Cloud GA, et al. Treatment of cryptococcal meningitis associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group and AIDS Clinical Trials Group. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(1):15-21. Available at:

24. Molloy SF, Kanyama C, Heyderman RS, et al. Antifungal combinations for treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in Africa. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(11):1004-1017. Available at:

25. Baddour LM, Perfect JR, Ostrosky-Zeichner L. Successful use of amphotericin B lipid complex in the treatment of cryptococcosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40 Suppl 6:S409-413. Available at:

26. Saag MS, Graybill RJ, Larsen RA, et al. Practice guidelines for the management of cryptococcal disease. Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;30(4):710-718. Available at:

27. Dromer F, Mathoulin-Pelissier S, Launay O, Lortholary O, French Cryptococcosis Study G. Determinants of disease presentation and outcome during cryptococcosis: the CryptoA/D study. PLoS Med. 2007;4(2):e21. Available at:

28. Dromer F, Bernede-Bauduin C, Guillemot D, Lortholary O, French Cryptococcosis Study G. Major role for amphotericin B-flucytosine combination in severe cryptococcosis. PLoS One. 2008;3(8):e2870. Available at:

29. Day JN, Chau TT, Wolbers M, et al. Combination antifungal therapy for cryptococcal meningitis. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(14):1291-1302. Available at:

30. Larsen RA, Bozzette SA, Jones BE, et al. Fluconazole combined with flucytosine for treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in patients with AIDS. Clin Infect Dis. 1994;19(4):741-745. Available at:

31. Bicanic T, Meintjes G, Wood R, et al. Fungal burden, early fungicidal activity, and outcome in cryptococcal meningitis in antiretroviral-naive or antiretroviral-experienced patients treated with amphotericin B or fluconazole. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45(1):76-80. Available at:

32. Longley N, Muzoora C, Taseera K, et al. Dose response effect of high-dose fluconazole for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in southwestern Uganda. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47(12):1556-1561. Available at:

33. Nussbaum JC, Jackson A, Namarika D, et al. Combination flucytosine and high-dose fluconazole compared with fluconazole monotherapy for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis: a randomized trial in Malawi. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 pubmed/20038244.

34. Kanyama C, Molloy SF, Chan AK, et al. One-year Mortality Outcomes From the Advancing Cryptococcal Meningitis Treatment for Africa Trial of Cryptococcal Meningitis Treatment in Malawi. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;70(3):521-524. Available at:

35. World Health Organization. Guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of cryptococcal disease in HIV-infected adults, adolescents and children. 2018. Available at:

36. Kabanda T, Siedner MJ, Klausner JD, Muzoora C, Boulware DR. Point-of-care diagnosis and prognostication of cryptococcal meningitis with the cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay on cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58(1):113-116. Available at:

37. Aberg JA, Watson J, Segal M, Chang LW. Clinical utility of monitoring serum cryptococcal antigen (sCRAG) titers in patients with AIDS-related cryptococcal disease. HIV Clin Trials. 2000;1(1):1-6. Available at:

38. Pappas PG, Chetchotisakd P, Larsen RA, et al. A phase II randomized trial of amphotericin B alone or combined with fluconazole in the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48(12):1775-1783. Available at:

39. Rolfes MA, Rhein J, Schutz C, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid culture positivity and clinical outcomes after amphotericin-based induction therapy for cryptococcal meningitis. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2015;2(4):ofv157. Available at:

40. Saag MS, Cloud GA, Graybill JR, et al. A comparison of itraconazole versus fluconazole as maintenance therapy for AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group. Clin Infect Dis. 1999;28(2):291-296. Available at:



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