Mitos y realidades | 23 JUN 20

Leche y salud

Rol del consumo de lácteos en la nutrición humana y la prevención de enfermedades
Autor/a: Walter C. Willett and David S. Ludwig N Engl J Med 2020;382:644-54
INDICE:  1. Texto principal | 2. Referencias bibliográficas
Referencias bibliográficas

1. Department of Agriculture, Department of Health and Human Services. Scientific report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2015.

2. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Food Data Central (https://fdc.nal

3. Adebamowo CA, Spiegelman D, Danby FW, Frazier AL, Willett WC, Holmes MD. High school dietary dairy intake and teenage acne. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005; 52: 207-14.

4. Maruyama K, Oshima T, Ohyama K. Exposure to exogenous estrogen through intake of commercial milk produced from pregnant cows. Pediatr Int 2010; 52: 33-8.

5. Hartman S, Lacorn H, Steinhart H. Natural occurrence of steroid hormones in food. Food Chem 1998; 62: 7-20.

6. Darling JA, Laing AH, Harkness RA. A survey of the steroids in cows’ milk. J Endocrinol 1974; 62: 291-7.

7. Echternkamp SE, Aad PY, Eborn DR, Spicer LJ. Increased abundance of aromatase and follicle stimulating hormone receptor mRNA and decreased insulin-like growth factor-2 receptor mRNA in small ovarian follicles of cattle selected for twin births. J Anim Sci 2012; 90: 2193-200.

8. Managing cow lactation cycles. The Cattle Site. May 18, 2015 ( articles/4248/managing-cow-lactation-cycles/).

9. Ganmaa D, Sato A. The possible role of female sex hormones in milk from pregnant cows in the development of breast, ovarian and corpus uteri cancers. Med Hypotheses 2005; 65: 1028-37.

10. Fernández M, Hudson JA, Korpela R, de los Reyes-Gavilán CG. Impact on human health of microorganisms present in fermented dairy products: an overview. Biomed Res Int 2015; 2015: 412714.

11. Messina V, Mangels AR. Considerations in planning vegan diets: children. J Am Diet Assoc 2001; 101: 661-9.

12. de Beer H. Dairy products and physical stature: a systematic review and metaanalysis of controlled trials. Econ Hum Biol 2012; 10: 299-309.

13. Berkey CS, Colditz GA, Rockett HR, Frazier AL, Willett WC. Dairy consumption and female height growth: prospective cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009; 18: 1881-7.

14. Olsen SF, Halldorsson TI, Willett WC, et al. Milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with increased infant size at birth: prospective cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 86: 1104-10.

15. Barr SI, McCarron DA, Heaney RP, et al. Effects of increased consumption of fluid milk on energy and nutrient intake, body weight, and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy older adults. J Am Diet Assoc 2000; 100: 810-7.

16. Cadogan J, Eastell R, Jones N, Barker ME. Milk intake and bone mineral acquisition in adolescent girls: randomised, controlled intervention trial. BMJ 1997; 315: 1255-60.

17. Zhu K, Du X, Cowell CT, et al. Effects of school milk intervention on cortical bone accretion and indicators relevant to bone metabolism in Chinese girls aged 10-12 y in Beijing. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 81: 1168-75.

18. Rich-Edwards JW, Ganmaa D, Pollak MN, et al. Milk consumption and the prepubertal somatotropic axis. Nutr J 2007; 6: 28.

19. FAO/WHO/UNU ad hoc Expert Consultation on Energy and Protein Requirements. Energy and protein requirements: report of a joint FAO/WHO/UNU expert consultation. WHO technical report no.724. Geneva: World Health Organization,1985.

20. Harrison S, Lennon R, Holly J, et al. Does milk intake promote prostate cancer initiation or progression via effects on insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Causes Control 2017; 28: 497-528.

21. Melnik BC. Milk — a nutrient system of mammalian evolution promoting mTORC1-dependent translation. Int J Mol Sci 2015; 16: 17048-87.

22. Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration. Adult height and the risk of cause-specific death and vascular morbidity in 1 million people: individual participant meta-analysis. Int J Epidemiol 2012; 41: 1419-33.

23. World Cancer Research Fund, American Institute for Cancer Research. Second expert report: food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. Washington, DC: AICR, 2007.

24. Hemenway D, Azrael DR, Rimm EB, Feskanich D, Willett WC. Risk factors for hip fracture in US men aged 40 through 75 years. Am J Public Health 1994; 84: 1843-5.

25. Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 2010.

26. Working Group on the Nutritional Status of the Population of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food and Nutrition Policy. Nutrition and bone health with particular reference to calcium and vitamin D: report of the Subgroup on Bone Health. London: The Stationery Office, U.K. Department of Health, 1998.

27. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases: report of a joint WHO/FAO expert consultation (report 916). Geneva: World Health Organization, 2003.

28. New food balances (preliminary data). New York: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (

29. Kanis JA, Odén A, McCloskey EV, et al. A systematic review of hip fracture incidence and probability of fracture worldwide. Osteoporos Int 2012; 23: 2239-56.

30. Hegsted DM. Calcium and osteoporosis. J Nutr 1986; 116: 2316-9.

31. Hegsted DM. Fractures, calcium, and the modern diet. Am J Clin Nutr 2001; 74: 571-3.

32. Hunt CD, Johnson LK. Calcium requirements: new estimations for men and women by cross-sectional statistical analyses of calcium balance data from metabolic studies. Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 86: 1054-63.

33. Hegsted DM, Moscoso I, Collazos C. A study of the minimum calcium requirements of adult men. J Nutr 1952; 46: 181-201.

34. Elders PJ, Lips P, Netelenbos JC, et al. Long-term effect of calcium supplementation on bone loss in perimenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 1994; 9: 963-70.

35. Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, Dallal GE. Effect of withdrawal of calcium and vitamin D supplements on bone mass in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 72: 745-50.

36. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Kiel DP, Dawson-Hughes B, et al. Dietary calcium and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in relation to BMD among U.S. adults. J Bone Miner Res 2009; 24: 935-42.

37. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Baron JA, et al. Calcium intake and hip fracture risk in men and women: a metaanalysis of prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 86: 1780-90.

38. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Baron JA, et al. Milk intake and risk of hip fracture in men and women: a metaanalysis of prospective cohort studies. J Bone Miner Res 2011; 26: 833-9.

39. Bian S, Hu J, Zhang K, Wang Y, Yu M, Ma J. Dairy product consumption and risk of hip fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health 2018; 18: 165.

40. Matía-Martín P, Torrego-Ellacuría M, Larrad-Sainz A, Fernández-Pérez C, Cuesta-Triana F, Rubio-Herrera MÁ. Effects of milk and dairy products on the prevention of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures in Europeans and Non-Hispanic whites from North America: a systematic review and updated meta-analysis. Adv Nutr 2019; 10: Suppl_2: S120-S143.

41. Feskanich D, Meyer HE, Fung TT, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Willett WC. Milk and other dairy foods and risk of hip fracture in men and women. Osteoporos Int 2018; 29: 385-96.

42. Holvik K, Meyer HE, Laake I, Feskanich D, Omsland TK, Søgaard AJ. Milk drinking and risk of hip fracture: the Norwegian Epidemiologic Osteoporosis Studies (NOREPOS). Br J Nutr 2018 December 27 (Epub ahead of print).

43. Abrams SA, Griffin IJ, Hicks PD, Gunn SK. Pubertal girls only partially adapt to low dietary calcium intakes. J Bone Miner Res 2004; 19: 759-63.

44. Abrams SA, Chen Z, Hawthorne KM. Magnesium metabolism in 4-year-old to 8-year-old children. J Bone Miner Res 2014; 29: 118-22.

45. Winzenberg TM, Shaw K, Fryer J, Jones G. Calcium supplementation for bone mineral density in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; 2: CD005119.

46. Merrilees MJ, Smart EJ, Gilchrist NL, et al. Effects of diary food supplements on bone mineral density in teenage girls. Eur J Nutr 2000; 39: 256-62.

47. Lee WT, Leung SS, Leung DM, Cheng JC. A follow-up study on the effects of calcium-supplement withdrawal and puberty on bone acquisition of children. Am J Clin Nutr 1996; 64: 71-7.

48. Lee WT, Leung SS, Leung DM, et al. Bone mineral acquisition in low calcium intake children following the withdrawal of calcium supplement. Acta Paediatr 1997; 86: 570-6.

49. Slemenda CW, Peacock M, Hui S, Zhou L, Johnston CC. Reduced rates of skeletal remodeling are associated with increased bone mineral density during the development of peak skeletal mass. J Bone Miner Res 1997; 12: 676-82.

50. Vogel KA, Martin BR, McCabe LD, et al. The effect of dairy intake on bone mass and body composition in early pubertal girls and boys: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2017; 105: 1214-29.

51. Lee AW, Cho SS. Association between phosphorus intake and bone health in the NHANES population. Nutr J 2015; 14: 28.

52. Feskanich D, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Frazier AL, Willett WC. Milk consumption during teenage years and risk of hip fractures in older adults. JAMA Pediatr 2014; 168: 54-60.

53. Chen M, Pan A, Malik VS, Hu FB. Effects of dairy intake on body weight and fat: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2012; 96: 735-47.

54. Mozaffarian D, Hao T, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Hu FB. Changes in diet and lifestyle and long-term weight gain in women and men. N Engl J Med 2011; 364: 2392-404.

55. Le Chatelier E, Nielsen T, Qin J, et al. Richness of human gut microbiome correlates with metabolic markers. Nature 2013; 500: 541-6.

56. Ley RE, Turnbaugh PJ, Klein S, Gordon JI. Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity. Nature 2006; 444: 1022-3.

57. Ridaura VK, Faith JJ, Rey FE, et al. Gut microbiota from twins discordant for obesity modulate metabolism in mice. Science 2013; 341: 1241214.

58. Turnbaugh PJ, Ley RE, Mahowald MA, Magrini V, Mardis ER, Gordon JI. An obesity-associated gut microbiome with increased capacity for energy harvest. Nature 2006; 444: 1027-31.

59. Berkey CS, Rockett HRH, Willett WC, Colditz GA. Milk, dairy fat, dietary calcium, and weight gain: a longitudinal study of adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2005; 159: 543-50.

60. Scharf RJ, Demmer RT, DeBoer MD. Longitudinal evaluation of milk type consumed and weight status in preschoolers. Arch Dis Child 2013; 98: 335-40.

61. Huh SY, Rifas-Shiman SL, Rich-Edwards JW, Taveras EM, Gillman MW. Prospective association between milk intake and adiposity in preschool-aged children. J Am Diet Assoc 2010; 110: 563-70.

62. Barba G, Troiano E, Russo P, Venezia A, Siani A. Inverse association between body mass and frequency of milk consumption in children. Br J Nutr 2005; 93: 15-9.

63. Noel SE, Ness AR, Northstone K, Emmett P, Newby PK. Milk intakes are not associated with percent body fat in children from ages 10 to 13 years. J Nutr 2011; 141: 2035-41.

64. Baker IA, Elwood PC, Hughes J, Jones M, Moore F, Sweetnam PM. A randomised controlled trial of the effect of the provision of free school milk on the growth of children. J Epidemiol Community Health 1980; 34: 31-4.

65. St-Onge MP, Goree LL, Gower B. High-milk supplementation with healthy diet counseling does not affect weight loss but ameliorates insulin action compared with low-milk supplementation in overweight children. J Nutr 2009; 139: 933-8.

66. Albala C, Ebbeling CB, Cifuentes M, Lera L, Bustos N, Ludwig DS. Effects of replacing the habitual consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages with milk in Chilean children. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 88: 605-11.

67. Lambourne K, Washburn RA, Lee J, et al. A 6-month trial of resistance training with milk supplementation in adolescents: effects on body composition. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2013; 23: 344-56.

68. Arnberg K, Mølgaard C, Michaelsen KF, Jensen SM, Trolle E, Larnkjær A. Skim milk, whey, and casein increase body weight and whey and casein increase the plasma C-peptide concentration in overweight adolescents. J Nutr 2012; 142: 2083-90.

69. Lappe JM, McMahon DJ, Laughlin A, et al. The effect of increasing dairy calcium intake of adolescent girls on changes in body fat and weight. Am J Clin Nutr 2017; 105: 1046-53.

70. Maki KC, Rains TM, Schild AL, et al. Effects of low-fat dairy intake on blood pressure, endothelial function, and lipoprotein lipids in subjects with pre hypertension or stage 1 hypertension. Vasc Health Risk Manag 2013; 9: 369-79.

71. van Meijl LE, Mensink RP. Low-fat dairy consumption reduces systolic blood pressure, but does not improve other metabolic risk parameters in overweight and obese subjects. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2011; 21: 355-61.

72. Cohen L, Curhan G, Forman J. Association of sweetened beverage intake with incident hypertension. J Gen Intern Med 2012; 27: 1127-34.

73. Appel LJ, Sacks FM, Carey VJ, et al. Effects of protein, monounsaturated fat, and carbohydrate intake on blood pressure and serum lipids: results of the OmniHeart randomized trial. JAMA 2005; 294: 2455-64.

74. Willett WC, Stampfer M. Diet and coronary heart disease. In: Willett WC, ed. Nutritional epidemiology. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013: 426-7.

75. Mensink RP, Zock PL, Kester AD, Katan MB. Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis

of 60 controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 77: 1146-55.

76. Astrup A, Dyerberg J, Elwood P, et al. The role of reducing intakes of saturated fat in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: where does the evidence stand in 2010? Am J Clin Nutr 2011; 93: 684-8.

77. Brassard D, Tessier-Grenier M, Allaire J, et al. Comparison of the impact of SFAs from cheese and butter on cardiometabolic risk factors: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2017; 105: 800-9.

78. Guo J, Astrup A, Lovegrove JA, Gijsbers L, Givens DI, Soedamah-Muthu SS. Milk and dairy consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Eur J Epidemiol 2017; 32: 269-87.

79. Bernstein AM, Sun Q, Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Willett WC. Major dietary protein sources and risk of coronary heart disease in women. Circulation 2010; 122: 876-83.

80. Bernstein AM, Pan A, Rexrode KM, et al. Dietary protein sources and the risk of stroke in men and women. Stroke 2012; 43: 637-44.

81. Chen M, Li Y, Sun Q, et al. Dairy fat and risk of cardiovascular disease in 3 cohorts of US adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2016; 104: 1209-17.

82. Dehghan M, Mente A, Rangarajan S, et al. Association of dairy intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality in 21 countries from five continents (PURE): a prospective cohort study. Lancet 2018; 392: 2288-97.

83. Knip M, Simell O. Environmental triggers of type 1 diabetes. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2012; 2(7): a007690.

84. Knip M, Åkerblom HK, Becker D, et al. Hydrolyzed infant formula and early β-cell autoimmunity: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2014; 311: 2279-87.

85. Aune D, Norat T, Romundstad P, Vatten LJ. Dairy products and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose response meta-analysis of cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr 2013; 98: 1066-83.

86. Chen M, Sun Q, Giovannucci E, et al. Dairy consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: 3 cohorts of US adults and an updated meta-analysis. BMC Med 2014; 12: 215.

87. Gijsbers L, Ding EL, Malik VS, de Goede J, Geleijnse JM, Soedamah-Muthu SS. Consumption of dairy foods and diabetes incidence: a dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies. Am J Clin Nutr 2016; 103: 1111-24.

88. Bergholdt HK, Nordestgaard BG, Ellervik C. Milk intake is not associated with low risk of diabetes or overweight obesity: a Mendelian randomization study in 97,811 Danish individuals. Am J Clin Nutr 2015; 102: 487-96.

89. Pan A, Malik VS, Schulze MB, Manson JE, Willett WC, Hu FB. Plain-water intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr 2012; 95: 1454-60.

90. Ganmaa D, Li XM, Wang J, Qin LQ, Wang PY, Sato A. Incidence and mortality of testicular and prostatic cancers in relation to world dietary practices. Int J Cancer 2002; 98: 262-7.

91. Qin LQ, He K, Xu JY. Milk consumption and circulating insulin-like growth factor-I level: a systematic literature review. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2009; 60: Suppl 7: 330-40.

92. Shi R, Yu H, McLarty J, Glass J. IGF-I and breast cancer: a meta-analysis. Int J Cancer 2004; 111: 418-23.

93. Aune D, Navarro Rosenblatt DA, Chan DS, et al. Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr 2015; 101: 87-117.

94. Ganmaa D, Cui X, Feskanich D, Hankinson SE, Willett WC. Milk, dairy intake and risk of endometrial cancer: a 26-year follow-up. Int J Cancer 2012; 130: 2664-71.

95. Genkinger JM, Hunter DJ, Spiegelman D, et al. Dairy products and ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006; 15: 364-72.

96. Aune D, Lau R, Chan DS, et al. Dairy products and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Ann Oncol 2012; 23: 37-45.

97. Cho E, Smith-Warner SA, Spiegelman D, et al. Dairy foods, calcium, and colorectal cancer: a pooled analysis of 10 cohort studies. J Natl Cancer Inst 2004; 96: 1015-22.

98. Mahabir S, Aagaard K, Anderson LM, et al. Challenges and opportunities in research on early-life events/exposures and cancer development later in life. Cancer Causes Control 2012; 23: 983-90.

99. Linos E, Willett WC, Cho E, Frazier L. Adolescent diet in relation to breast cancer risk among premenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2010; 19: 689-96.

100. Sackesen C, Assa’ad A, Baena-Cagnani C, et al. Cow’s milk allergy as a global challenge. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2011; 11: 243-8.

101. Murray MG, Kanuga J, Yee E, Bahna SL. Milk-induced wheezing in children with asthma. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2013; 41: 310-4.

102. von Berg A, Filipiak-Pittroff B, Krämer U, et al. Allergies in high-risk school children after early intervention with cow’s milk protein hydrolysates: 10-year results from the German Infant Nutritional

Intervention (GINI) study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2013; 131: 1565-73.

103. Iacono G, Cavataio F, Montalto G, et al. Intolerance of cow’s milk and chronic constipation in children. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 1100-4.

104. Pelikan Z. Asthmatic response to milk ingestion challenge in adults: a comparison of the open and double-blind challenges. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2013; 161: 163-73.

105. Olivier CE, Lorena SL, Pavan CR, et al. Is it just lactose intolerance? Allergy Asthma Proc 2012; 33: 432-6.

106. Ding M, Li J, Qi L, et al. Associations of dairy intake with risk of mortality in women and men: three prospective cohort studies. BMJ 2019; 367: l6204.

107. Song M, Fung TT, Hu FB, et al. Association of animal and plant protein intake with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. JAMA Intern Med 2016; 176: 1453-63.108. Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare. Report on animal welfare aspects of the use of bovine somatotrophin. March 10, 1999 ( -com_scah_out21_en.pdf).

109. Canada rejects bovine growth hormone. January 19, 1999 (

110. Benbrook CM, Butler G, Latif MA, Leifert C, Davis DR. Organic production enhances milk nutritional quality by shifting fatty acid composition: a United States wide, 18-month study. PLoS One 2013; 8(12): e82429.

111. Smith-Spangler C, Brandeau ML, Hunter GE, et al. Are organic foods safer or healthier than conventional alternatives? A systematic review. Ann Intern Med 2012; 157: 348-66.

112. Willett W, Rockström J, Loken B, et al. Food in the Anthropocene: the EAT Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems. Lancet 2019; 393: 447-92.

113. Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development. The dairy sector, agriculture, trade and the environment. Paris: OECD Publishing, 2004.

114. Pimental D, Pimental MH. Livestock production and energy use. In: Pimental D, Pimental MH, eds. Food, energy, and society. 3rd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2011: 67-76.

115. Garnett T. Where are the best opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the food system (including the food chain)? Food Policy 2011; 36: Suppl: S23-S32.

116. Springmann M, Clark M, Mason- D’Croz D, et al. Options for keeping the food system within environmental limits. Nature 2018; 562: 519-25.

117. Gonzales AD, Frostell B, Carlsson-Kanyama A. Protein efficiency per unit energy and per unit greenhouse gas emissions: Potential contribution of diet choices to climate change mitigation. Food

Policy 2011; 36: 562-70.

118. Gerosa S, Skoet J. Milk availability: trend in production and demand and future outlook. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2012.

119. Goodland R. A fresh look at livestock greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation potential in Europe. Glob Chang Biol 2014; 20: 2042-4.

120. Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition. Vitamin D and health. July 2016 (https://assets file/ 537616/ SACN_Vitamin_D_and_Health_report.pdf).

121. American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada. Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: vegetarian diets. Can J Diet Pract Res 2003; 64: 62-81.



Usted debe ingresar al sitio con su cuenta de usuario IntraMed para ver los comentarios de sus colegas o para expresar su opinión. Si ya tiene una cuenta IntraMed o desea registrase, ingrese aquí