1. Gidlof S, Falhammar H, Thilen A, et al. One hundred years of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in Sweden: a retrospective, population-based cohort study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2013; 1: 35-42.
2. Rushworth RL, Torpy DJ, Falhammar H. Adrenal crises: perspectives and research directions. Endocrine 2017; 55: 336-45.
3. Hahner S, Loeffler M, Bleicken B, et al. Epidemiology of adrenal crisis in chronic adrenal insufficiency: the need for new prevention strategies. Eur J Endocrinol 2010; 162: 597-602.
4. Rushworth RL, Torpy DJ. Adrenal insufficiency in Australia: is it possible that the use of lower dose, short-acting glucocorticoids has increased the risk of adrenal crises? Horm Metab Res 2015; 47: 427-32.
5. Allolio B. Extensive expertise in endocrinology: adrenal crisis. Eur J Endocrinol
2015; 172: R115-24.
6. Puar TH, Stikkelbroeck NM, Smans LC, Zelissen PM, Hermus AR. Adrenal crisis: still a deadly event in the 21st century. Am J Med 2016; 129(3): 339.e1-339.e9.
7. Bornstein SR, Allolio B, Arlt W, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of primary adrenal insufficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2016; 101: 364-89.
8. Charmandari E, Nicolaides NC, Chrousos GP. Adrenal insufficiency. Lancet 2014; 383: 2152-67.
9. Oelkers W. Adrenal insufficiency.N Engl J Med 1996; 335: 1206-12.
10. Bancos I, Hahner S, Tomlinson J, Arlt W. Diagnosis and management of adrenal insufficiency. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2015; 3: 216-26.
11. Arlt W, Allolio B. Adrenal insufficiency. Lancet 2003; 361: 1881-93.
12. Rushworth RL, Torpy DJ, Stratakis CA, Falhammar H. Adrenal crises in children: perspectives and research directions. Horm Res Paediatr 2018; 89: 341-51.
13. Hsieh S, White PC. Presentation of primary adrenal insufficiency in childhood.J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011; 96(6): E925-E928.
14. Cortet C, Barat P, Zenaty D, Guignat L, Chanson P. Group 5: acute adrenal insufficiency in adults and pediatric patients.Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2017; 78:535-43.
15. Odenwald B, Nennstiel-Ratzel U, Dorr HG, Schmidt H, Wildner M, Bonfig W. Children with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia experience salt loss and hypoglycemia: evaluation of adrenal crises during the first 6 years of life. Eur J Endocrinol 2016; 174: 177-86.
16. Bowden SA, Henry R. Pediatric adrenal insufficiency: diagnosis, management, and new therapies. Int J Pediatr 2018; 2018: 1739831.
17. Ramamoorthy S, Cidlowski JA. Corticosteroids: mechanisms of action in health and disease. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2016; 42: 15-31.
18. Coutinho AE, Chapman KE. The anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids, recent developments and mechanistic insights. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2011; 335: 2-13.
19. Annane D, Bellissant E, Sebille V, et al. Impaired pressor sensitivity to noradrenaline in septic shock patients with and without impaired adrenal function reserve. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 46: 589- 97.
20. Dinneen S, Alzaid A, Miles J, Rizza R. Metabolic effects of the nocturnal rise in cortisol on carbohydrate metabolism in normal humans. J Clin Invest 1993; 92: 2283-90.
21. Macfarlane DP, Forbes S, Walker BR. Glucocorticoids and fatty acid metabolism in humans: fuelling fat redistribution in the metabolic syndrome. J Endocrinol 2008; 197: 189-204.
22. Smans LC, Van der Valk ES, Hermus AR, Zelissen PM. Incidence of adrenal crisis in patients with adrenal insufficiency. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2016; 84: 17-22.
23. Falhammar H, Frisen L, Norrby C, et al. Increased mortality in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014; 99(12): E2715-E2721.
24. Iwasaku M, Shinzawa M, Tanaka S, Kimachi K, Kawakami K. Clinical characteristics of adrenal crisis in adult population with and without predisposing chronic adrenal insufficiency: a retrospective cohort study. BMC Endocr Disord 2017; 17: 58.
25. Rushworth RL, Chrisp GL, Torpy DJ. Glucocorticoid-induced adrenal insufficiency: a study of the incidence in hospital patients and a review of peri-operative management. Endocr Pract 2018; 24: 437-45.
26. White K, Arlt W. Adrenal crisis in treated Addison’s disease: a predictable but under-managed event. Eur J Endocrinol 2010; 162: 115-20.
27. Rushworth RL, Torpy DJ. A descriptive study of adrenal crises in adults with adrenal insufficiency: increased risk with age and in those with bacterial infections. BMC Endocr Disord 2014; 14: 79.
28. Hahner S, Spinnler C, Fassnacht M et al. High incidence of adrenal crisis in educated patients with chronic adrenal insufficiency: a prospective study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2015; 100: 407-16.
29. Meyer G, Koch M, Herrmann E, Bojunga J, Badenhoop K. Longitudinal AddiQoL scores may identify higher risk for adrenal crises in Addison’s disease. Endocrine 2018; 60: 355-61.
30. El-Maouche D, Hargreaves CJ, Sinaii N, Mallappa A, Veeraraghavan P, Merke DP. Longitudinal assessment of illnesses, stress dosing, and illness sequelae in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018; 103: 2336-45.
31. Rushworth RL, Torpy DJ. Modern hydrocortisone replacement regimens in adrenal insufficiency patients and the risk of adrenal crisis. Horm Metab Res 2015; 47:637-42.
32. Tomlinson JW, Holden N, Hills RK, et al. Association between premature mortality and hypopituitarism. Lancet 2001; 357: 425-31.
33. Bergthorsdottir R, Leonsson-Zachrisson M, Oden A, Johannsson G. Premature mortality in patients with Addison’s disease: a population-based study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006; 91: 4849-53.
34. Bensing S, Brandt L, Tabaroj F, et al. Increased death risk and altered cancer incidence pattern in patients with isolated or combined autoimmune primary adrenocortical insufficiency. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2008; 69: 697-704.
35. Erichsen MM, Lovas K, Fougner KJ,et al. Normal overall mortality rate in Addison’s disease, but young patients are at risk of premature death. Eur J Endocrinol 2009; 160: 233-7.
36. Burman P, Mattsson AF, Johannsson G, et al. Deaths among adult patients with hypopituitarism: hypocortisolism during acute stress, and de novo malignant brain tumors contribute to an increased mortality. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013; 98:1466-75.
37. Molander N. Sudden natural death in later childhood and adolescence. Arch Dis Child 1982; 57: 572-6.
38. Hajsheikholeslami F, Yazdani S. Sudden cardiac death as a result of neglected hypopituitarism. Int J Endocrinol Metab 2013; 11: 117-9.
39. Saevik AB, Akerman AK, Gronning K, et al. Clues for early detection of autoimmune Addison’s disease — myths and realities. J Intern Med 2018; 283: 190-9.
40. Bird S. Failure to diagnose: Addison disease. Aust Fam Physician 2007; 36: 859-61.
41. Chrisp GL, Maguire AM, Quartararo M, et al. Variations in the management of acute illness in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: an audit of three paediatric hospitals. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2018; 89: 577-85.
42. Rushworth RL, Falhammar H, Munns CF, Maguire AM, Torpy DJ. Hospital admission patterns in children with CAH: admission rates and adrenal crises decline with age. Int J Endocrinol 2016; 2016: 5748264.
43. Major A, Chacko K. Routine vaccinations as a precipitant of adrenal crisis in adrenal insufficiency. Intern Med J 2018; 48: 360-1.
44. Smrecnik M, Kavcic Trsinar Z, Kocjan T. Adrenal crisis after first infusion of zoledronic acid: a case report. Osteoporos Int 2018; 29: 1675-8.
45. Barroso-Sousa R, Barry WT, Garrido-Castro AC, et al. Incidence of endocrine dysfunction following the use of different immune checkpoint inhibitor regimens: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Oncol 2018; 4: 173-82.
46. Akarca FK, Can O, Yalcinli S, Altunci YA. Nivolumab, a new immunomodulatory drug, a new adverse effect; adrenal crisis. Turk J Emerg Med 2017; 17: 157-9.
47. Falhammar H, Nordenstrom A. Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency: clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome. Endocrine 2015; 50: 32-50.
48. Burger-Stritt S, Kardonski P, Pulzer A, Meyer G, Quinkler M, Hahner S. Management of adrenal emergencies in educated patients with adrenal insufficiency —a prospective study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2018; 89: 22-9.
49. Lewandowski KC, Marcinkowska M, Skowronska-Jozwiak E, Makarewicz J, Lewinski A. New onset Graves’ disease as a cause of an adrenal crisis in an individual with panhypopituitarism: brief report. Thyroid Res 2008; 1: 7.
50. Roque C, Fonseca R, Bello CT, Vasconcelos C, Galzerano A, Ramos S. Thyrotoxicosis leading to adrenal crises reveals primary bilateral adrenal lymphoma. Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2017; 2017: 17-0002.
51. Sychev DA, Ashraf GM, Svistunov AA, et al. The cytochrome P450 isoenzyme and some new opportunities for the prediction of negative drug interaction in vivo. Drug Des Devel Ther 2018; 12: 1147-56.
52. Bornstein SR. Predisposing factors for adrenal insufficiency. N Engl J Med 2009; 360: 2328-39.
53. Gargya A, Chua E, Hetherington J, Sommer K, Cooper M. Acute adrenal insufficiency: an aide-memoire of the critical importance of its recognition and prevention. Intern Med J 2016; 46: 356-9.
54. Hahner S, Hemmelmann N, Quinkler M, Beuschlein F, Spinnler C, Allolio B.Timelines in the management of adrenal crisis — targets, limits and reality. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2015; 82: 497-502.
55. Kampmeyer D, Lehnert H, Moenig H, Haas CS, Harbeck B. A strong need for improving the education of physicians on glucocorticoid replacement treatment in adrenal insufficiency: an interdisciplinary and multicentre evaluation. Eur J Intern Med 2016; 33: e13-e15.
56. Kampmeyer D, Lehnert H, Moenig H, Haas CS, Harbeck B. Experience pays off! Endocrine centres are essential in the care of patients with adrenal insufficiency. Eur J Intern Med 2016; 35: e27-e28.
57. Shepherd LM, Tahrani AA, Inman C, Arlt W, Carrick-Sen DM. Exploration of knowledge and understanding in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency: a mixed methods study. BMC Endocr Disord 2017; 17: 47.
58. Nour MA, Gill H, Mondal P, Inman M, Urmson K. Perioperative care of congenital adrenal hyperplasia — a disparity of physician practices in Canada. Int J PediatrEndocrinol 2018; 2018: 8.
59. Leblicq C, Rottembourg D, Deladoey J, Van Vliet G, Deal C. Are guidelines for glucocorticoid coverage in adrenal insufficiency currently followed? J Pediatr 2011;158(3): 492.e1-498.e1.
60. Rushworth RL, Slobodian P, Torpy DJ. Interruptions to supply of high-dose hydrocortisone tablets and the incidence of adrenal crises. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2015; 83: 999-1000.
61. Forss M, Batcheller G, Skrtic S, Johannsson G. Current practice of glucocorticoid replacement therapy and patient-perceived health outcomes in adrenal insufficiency — a worldwide patient survey. BMC Endocr Disord 2012; 12: 8.
62. Chapman SC, Llahana S, Carroll P, Horne R. Glucocorticoid therapy for adrenal insufficiency: nonadherence, concerns and dissatisfaction with information. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2016; 84: 664-71.
63. Burger-Stritt S, Pulzer A, Hahner S. Quality of life and life expectancy in patients with adrenal insufficiency: what is true and what is urban myth? Front Horm Res 2016; 46: 171-83.
64. Lovas K, Loge JH, Husebye ES. Subjective health status in Norwegian patients with Addison’s disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2002; 56: 581-8.
65. Hahner S, Loeffler M, Fassnacht M, et al. Impaired subjective health status in 256 patients with adrenal insufficiency on standard therapy based on cross-sectional analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007; 92: 3912-22.
66. Bleicken B, Hahner S, Loeffler M, Ventz M, Allolio B, Quinkler M. Impaired subjective health status in chronic adrenal insufficiency: impact of different glucocorticoid replacement regimens. Eur J Endocrinol 2008; 159: 811-7.
67. Daae E, Feragen KB, Nermoen I, Falhammar H. Psychological adjustment, quality of life, and self-perceptions of reproductive health in males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: a systematic review. Endocrine 2018; 62: 3-13.
68. Strandqvist A, Falhammar H, Lichtenstein P, et al. Suboptimal psychosocial outcomes in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: epidemiological studies in a nonbiased national cohort in Sweden. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014; 99:1425-32.
69. Mallappa A, Debono M. Recent advances in hydrocortisone replacement treatment. Endocr Dev 2016; 30: 42-53.
70. Werumeus Buning J, Touw DJ, Brummelman P, et al. Pharmacokinetics of oralhydrocortisone — results and implications from a randomized controlled trial. Metabolism 2017; 71: 7-16.
71. Sorgdrager FJH, Werumeus Buning J, Bos EH, Van Beek AP, Kema IP. Hydrocortisone affects fatigue and physical functioning through metabolism of tryptophan: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018; 103: 3411-9.
72. Keenan DM, Roelfsema F, Carroll BJ, Iranmanesh A, Veldhuis JD. Sex defines the age dependence of endogenous ACTHcortisol dose responsiveness. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2009; 297: R515-R523.
73. Remmelts HH, Meijvis SC, Kovaleva A, Biesma DH, Rijkers GT, Heijligenberg R. Changes in serum cortisol levels during community-acquired pneumonia: the influence of dexamethasone. Respir Med 2012; 106: 905-8.
74. Venkatesh B, Finfer S, Cohen J, et al. Adjunctive glucocorticoid therapy in patients with septic shock. N Engl J Med 2018; 378: 797-808.
75. Hahner S, Burger-Stritt S, Allolio B. Subcutaneous hydrocortisone administration for emergency use in adrenal insufficiency. Eur J Endocrinol 2013; 169: 147-54.
76. Quinkler M, Dahlqvist P, Husebye ES, Kampe O. A European Emergency Card for adrenal insufficiency can save lives.Eur J Intern Med 2015; 26: 75-6.
77. Vidmar AP, Weber JF, Monzavi R Koppin CM, Kim MS. Improved medicalalert ID ownership and utilization in youth with congenital adrenal hyperplasia following a parent educational intervention. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2018; 31: 213-9.
78. Repping-Wuts HJ, Stikkelbroeck NM, Noordzij A, Kerstens M, Hermus AR. A glucocorticoid education group meeting: an effective strategy for improving self management to prevent adrenal crisis. Eur J Endocrinol 2013; 169: 17-22.
79. Hahner S. Acute adrenal crisis and mortality in adrenal insufficiency: still a concern in 2018! Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2018; 79: 164-6.
80. Balyura M, Gelfgat E, Ehrhart-Bornstein M, et al. Transplantation of bovine adrenocortical cells encapsulated in alginate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2015; 112:2527-32.
81. Balyura M, Gelfgat E, Steenblock C, et al. Expression of progenitor markers is associated with the functionality of a bioartificial adrenal cortex. PLoS One 2018;13(3): e0194643.
Usted debe ingresar al sitio con su cuenta de usuario IntraMed para ver los comentarios de sus colegas o para expresar su opinión. Si ya tiene una cuenta IntraMed o desea registrase, ingrese aquí