Revisión y puesta al día en profundidad | 06 ENE 17

Enfermedad de hígado graso no alcohólico

Paralelo a la obesidad, la enfermedad por hígado graso no alcolólico y su progresión a esteatohepatitis se ha convertido en la enfermedad hepática más frecuente en niños y adolescentes
12
25
INDICE:  1. Página 1 | 2. Referencias bibliográficas
Referencias bibliográficas
  1. Vajro P, Lenta S, Socha P, Dhawan A, Mc Kiernan P, Baumann U, Durmaz O, Lacaille F, McLin V, Nobili V. Diagnosis of no­nalcoholic fatty liver disease in children and adolescents: position paper of the ESPGHAN Hepatology Committee. J Pediatr Gas­troenterol Nutr 2012; 54: 700-713.
  2. Loomba R, Sirlin CB, Schwimmer JB, Lavine JE. Advances in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology 2009; 50: 1282-1293.
  3. Feldstein AE, Charatcharoenwitthaya P, Treeprasertsuk S, Ben­son JT, Enders FB, Angulo P. The natural history of non-alcoho­lic fatty liver disease in children: a follow-up study for up to 20 years. Gut 2009; 58: 1538-1544.
  4. Marino L, Jornayvaz FR. Endocrine causes of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. World J Gastroenterol 2015; 21: 11053-11076.
  5. Berardis S, Sokal E. Pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: an increasing public health issue. Eur J Pediatr 2014; 173: 131-139.
  6. Ludwig J, Viggiano TR, McGill DB, Oh BJ. Nonalcoholic stea­tohepatitis: Mayo Clinic experiences with a hitherto unnamed disease. Mayo Clin Proc 1980; 55: 434-438.
  7. Moran JR, Ghishan FK, Halter SA, Greene HL. Steatohepatitis in obese children: a cause of chronic liver dysfunction. Am J Gas­troenterol 1983; 78: 374-377.
  8. Dam-Larsen S, Franzmann M, Andersen IB, Christoffersen P, Jensen LB, Sørensen TI, Becker U, Bendtsen F. Long term prognosis of fatty liver: risk of chronic liver disease and death. Gut 2004; 53: 750-755.
  9. Wong VW, Wong GL, Choi PC, Chan AW, Li MK, Chan HY, Chim AM, Yu J, Sung JJ, Chan HL Disease progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a prospective study with paired liver biopsies at 3 years. Gut 2010; 59: 969-974.
  10. Matteoni CA, Younossi ZM, Gramlich T, Boparai N, Liu YC, Mc­Cullough AJ. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a spectrum of clinical and pathological severity. Gastroenterology 1999; 116: 1413-1419.
  11. Powell EE, Cooksley WG, Hanson R, Searle J, Halliday JW, Powell LW. The natural history of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a follow-up study of forty-two patients for up to 21 years. Hepato­logy 1990; 11: 74-80.
  12. Farrell GC, Larter CZ. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: from stea­tosis to cirrhosis. Hepatology 2006; 43: S99-S112.
  13. Adams LA, Lymp JF, St Sauver J, Sanderson SO, Lindor KD, Feldstein A, Angulo P. The natural history of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a population-based cohort study. Gastroenterology 2005; 129: 113-121.
  14. Ekstedt M, Franzén LE, Mathiesen UL, Thorelius L, Holmqvist M, Bodemar G, Kechagias S. Long-term follow-up of patients with NA­FLD and elevated liver enzymes. Hepatology 2006; 44: 865-873.
  15. Vernon G, Baranova A, Younossi ZM. Systematic review: the epidemiology and natural history of non-alcoholic fatty liver di­sease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in adults. Aliment Phar­macol Ther 2011; 34: 274-285.
  16. Musso G, Gambino R, Cassader M, Pagano G. Meta-analysis: natural history of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diagnostic accuracy of non-invasive tests for liver disease severity. Ann Med 2011; 43: 617-649.
  17. Kim D, Kim WR, Kim HJ, Therneau TM. Association between noninvasive fibrosis markers and mortality among adults with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the United States. Hepatology 2013; 57: 1357-1365.
  18. Rafiq N, Bai C, Fang Y, Srishord M, Mc Cullough A, Gramlich T, Younossi ZM. Long-term follow-up of patients with nonalco­holic fatty liver. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2009; 7: 234-238.
  19. Stepanova M, Rafiq N, Makhlouf H, Agrawal R, Kaur I, Younoszai Z, Mc Cullough A, Goodman Z, Younossi ZM. Predictors of all-cau­se mortality and liver-related mortality in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Dig Dis Sci 2013; 58: 3017-3023.
  20. Santoro N, Feldstein AE, Enoksson E, Pierpont B, Kursawe R, Kim G, Caprio S. The association between hepatic fat content and liver injury in obese children and adolescents: effects of ethni­city, insulin resistance, and common gene variants. Diabetes Care 2013; 36: 1353-1360.
  21. Nobili V, Alisi A, Grimaldi C, Liccardo D, Francalanci P, Monti L, Castellano A, de Ville de Goyet J. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in a 7-year-old obese boy: coincidence or comorbidity? Pediatr Obes 2014; 9: e99-e102
  22. Giorgio V, Prono F, Graziano F, Nobili V. Pediatric non alcoho­lic fatty liver disease: old and new concepts on development, pro­gression, metabolic insight and potential treatment targets. BMC Pediatr 2013; 13:40.
  23. Alavian SM, Mohammad-Alizadeh AH, Esna-Ashari F, Ardalan G, Hajarizadeh B. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease prevalence among school-aged children and adolescents in Iran and its aso­ciation with biochemical and anthropometric measures. Liver Int 2009; 29: 159-163.
  24. Pajuelo J, Cuadros M, Campos M, Sánchez J. Prevalencia de so­brepeso y obesidad en niños menores de cinco años en el Perú 2007-2010. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Pública 2011; 28: 222-227.
  25. Encuesta Nacional de la Situación Nutricional en Colombia. En: http://www.dane.gov.co/files/investigaciones/boletines/vehicu­los/bol_veh_Itrim11.pdf ICBF 2010. Bogotá.
  26. Browning JD, Szczepaniak LS, Dobbins R, Nuremberg P, Hor­ton JD, Cohen JC, Grundy SM, Hobbs HH. Prevalence of hepa­tic steatosis in an urban population in the United States: impact of ethnicity. Hepatology 2004; 40: 1387-1395.
  27. Nomura H, Kashiwagi S, Hayashi J, Kajiyama W, Tani S, Goto M. Prevalence of fatty liver in a general population of Okinawa, Japan. Jpn J Med 1988; 27: 142-149.
  28. Schwimmer JB, Deutsch R, Kahen T, Lavine JE, Stanley C, Be­hling C. Prevalence of fatty liver in children and adolescents. Pe­diatrics 2006; 118: 1388-1393.
  29. Xanthakos S, Miles L, Bucuvalas J, Daniels S, García V, Inge T. Histologic spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in morbidly obese adolescents. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 4: 226-232.
  30. Roberts E. Pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): a “growing” problem? J Hepatol 2007; 46: 1133-1142.
  31. Schwimmer J, McGreal N, Deutsch R, Finegold M, Lavine J. In­fluence of Gender, Race, and Ethnicity on Suspected Fatty Liver in Obese Adolescents. Pediatrics 2005; 115: e561-e566.
  32. Schwimmer JB, Deutsch R, Rauch JB, Behling C, Newbury R, Lavine JE. Obesity, insulin resistance, and other clinicopathologi­cal correlates of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Pediatr 2003; 143: 500-505.
  33. Pacheco L, Piñeiro LR, Fragoso AT, Valdés AMC, Martínez R. Hígado graso no alcohólico en niños obesos. Rev Cubana Pe­diatr [revista en la Internet] 2006 [citado 2015 Sep; 78. En: http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034- 75312006000100002&lng=es].
  34. Pontiles M, Morón A, Rodríguez H, Perdomo G. Prevalencia de la enfermedad de hígado graso no alcohólico en una población de niños obesos en Valencia, Venezuela. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición 2014; 64: 73-82. En: http://www.alanrevista.org/ ediciones/2014/2/?i=art1.
  35. Angulo P. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 1221-1231.
  36. Patton HM Lavine JE, Van Natta ML, Schwimmer JB, Klei­ner D, Molleston J; Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Re­search Network. Clinical correlates of histopathology in pedia­tric nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Gastroenterology 2008; 135: 1961-1971.
  37. Patton HM, Sirlin C, Behling C, Middleton M, Schwimmer JB, Lavine JE. Pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a critical ap­praisal of current data and implications for future research. J Pe­diatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2006; 43: 413-427.
  38. Quirós-Tejeira RE, Rivera CA, Ziba TT, Mehta N, Smith CW, Butte NF. Risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Hispanic youth with BMI > or = 95th percentile. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2007; 44: 228-236.
  39. Richardson MM, Jonsson JR, Powell EE, Brunt EM, Neus­chwander-Tetri BA, Bhathal PS, Dixon JB, Weltman MD, Tilg H, Moschen AR, Purdie DM, Demetris AJ, Clouston AD. Pro­gressive fibrosis in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: association with altered regeneration and a ductular reaction. Gastroenterology 2007; 133: 80-90.
  40. Sahoo K, Sahoo B, Choudhury AK, Sofi NY, Kumar R, Bhadoria AS. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences. J Family Med Prim Care 2015; 4:187-192.
  41. Seidell JC. Obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes: a worldwide epidemic. Br J Nutr 2000; 83: S5-S8.
  42. Wiegand S, Keller KM, Röbl M, L’Allemand D, Reinehr T, Wi­dhalm K, Holl RW. APV-Study Group and the German Com­petence Network Adipositas. Obese boys at increased risk for no­nalcoholic liver disease: evaluation of 16.390 overweight or obese children and adolescents. Int J Obes (Lond) 2010; 34: 1468-1474.
  43. Villa A, Della Torre S, Stell A, Cook J, Brown M, Maggi A. Tetra­dian oscillation of estrogen receptor is necessary to prevent liver li­pid deposition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012; 109: 11806-11811.
  44. Kelly DM, Nettleship JE, Akhtar S, Muraleedharan V, Sellers DJ, Brooke JC, McLaren DS, Channer KS, Jones TH. Testostero­ne suppresses the expression of regulatory enzymes of fatty acid synthesis and protects against hepatic steatosis in cholesterol-fed androgen deficient mice. Life Sci 2014; 109: 95-103.
  45. Zhang H, Liu Y, Wang L, Li Z, Zhang H, Wu J, Rahman N, Guo Y, Li D, Li N, Huhtaniemi I, Tsang SY, Gao GF, Li X. Differential effects of estrogen/androgen on the prevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the male rat. J Lipid Res 2013; 54: 345-357.
  46. Dongiovanni P, Anstee QM, Valenti L. Genetic predisposition in NAFLD and NASH: impact on severity of liver disease and response to treatment. Curr Pharm Des 2013; 19: 5219-5238.
  47. Donnelly KL, Smith CI, Schwarzenberg SJ, Jessurun J, Boldt MD, Parks EJ. Sources of fatty acids stored in liver and secreted via lipoproteins in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Clin Invest 2005; 115: 1343-1351.
  48. Kanerva N, Sandboge S, Kaartinen NE, Männistö S, Eriksson JG. Higher fructose intake is inversely associated with risk of nonalco­holic fatty liver disease in older Finnish adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2014; 100: 1133-1138.
  49. Moore JB, Gunn PJ, Fielding BA. The role of dietary sugars and de novo lipogenesis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Nutrients 2014; 6: 5679-5703.
  50. Vos MB. Nutrition, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the mi­crobiome: recent progress in the field. Curr Opin Lipidol 2014; 25: 61-66.
  51. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications: report of a WHO consultation. Geneva, World Health Organization 1999.
  52. National Cholesterol Education Program, Executive summary of the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 2001; 285: 2486-2497.
  53. Balkau B, Charles MA: Comment on the provisional report from the WHO consultation. European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR). Diabet Med 1999; 16: 442-443.
  54. Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J. IDF Epidemiology Task Force Consensus Group. The metabolic syndrome a new worldwide de­finition. Lancet 2005; 366: 1059-1062.
  55. Weiss R, Dziura J, Burgert TS, Tamborlane WV, Taksali SE, Yec­kel CW, Allen K, Lopes M, Savoye M, Morrison J, Sherwin RS, Caprio S. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 2362-2374.
  56. Castro AL, Arriaga HE, Palacios GC. Esteatosis hepática (EH) como factor asociado a la presencia de riesgo metabólico en escolares y ado­lescentes obesos. Gaceta Médica de México 2014; 150: 95-100.
  57. Maclaren NK, Gujral S, Ten S, Motagheti R. Childhood obesity and insulin resistance. Cell Biochem Biophys 2007; 48: 73-78.
  58. Walenbergh SM, Houben T, Hendrikx T, Jeurissen ML, van Gorp PJ, Vreugdenhil AC, Adriaanse MP, Buurman WA, Hofker MH, Mosca A, Lindsey PJ, Alisi A, Liccardo D, Panera N, Koek GH, Nobili V, Shiri-Sverdlov R. Plasma cathepsin d levels: a no­vel tool to predict pediatric hepatic inflammation. Am J Gastroen­terol 2015; 110: 462-470.
  59. Feldstein AE, Alkhouri N, De Vito R, Alisi A, Lopez R, Nobili V. Serum cytokeratin-18 fragment levels are useful biomarkers for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in children. Am J Gastroenterol 2013; 108: 1526-1531.
  60. Monteiro PA, Antunes B de M, Silveira LS, Christofaro DG, Fernandes RA, Freitas Junior IF. Body composition variables as predictors of NAFLD by ultrasound in obese children and adoles­cents. BMC Pediatr 2014; 14: 25.
  61. Alisi A, Feldstein AE, Villani A, Raponi M, Nobili V. Pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a multidisciplinary approach. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2012; 9: 152-161.
  62. Peña L, Aguiar Santana I, Ruiz Moreno. Esteatosis hepática y es­teatohepatitis En: F Arguelles Martín, MD García Novo, P Pavón Belinchón, E Román Riechmann, G Silva García, A Sojo Aguirre eds. Tratado de Gastroenterología, Hepatología y Nutrición Pe­diátrica aplicada de la Sociedad Española de Gastroenterología, Hepatología y Nutrición Pediátrica. Madrid: Ergon; 2011; 577- 585. ISBN: 978-84-8473-891-6.
  63. Sundaram SS, Zeitler P, Nadeau K. The Metabolic Syndrome and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in children. Curr Opin Pediatr 2009; 21: 529-535.
  64. Zimmet P, Alberti KG, Kaufman F, Tajima N, Silink M, Ars­lanian S, Wong G, Bennett P, Shaw J, Caprio S; The metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents – an IDF consensus report. IDF Consensus Group. Pediatr Diabetes 2007; 8: 299-306.
  65. Kurtoğlu S, Hatipoğlu N, Mazıcıoğlu M, Kendirici M, Keskin M, Kondolot M. Insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents: HOMA-IR cut-off levels in the prepubertal and pubertal periods. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 2010; 2: 100-106.
  66. Kelly A, Dougherty S, Cucchiara A, Marcus CL, Brooks LJ. Catecho­lamines, adiponectin, and insulin resistance as measured by HOMA in children with obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep 2010; 33: 1185-1191.
  67. Barlow SE. Expert Committee recommendations regarding the pre­vention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity: summary report. Pediatrics 2007; 120: S164-S192.
  68. Schwimmer JB, Dunn W, Norman GJ, Pardee PE, Middleton MS, Kerkar N, Sirlin CB. SAFETY study: alanine aminotransfera­se cut-off values are set too high for reliable detection of pediatric chronic liver disease. Gastroenterology 2010; 138: 1357-1364.
  69. Strauss RS, Barlow SE, Dietz WH. Prevelance of abnormal serum aminotransferase values in overweight and obese adolescents. J Pe­diatrics 2000; 136: 727-133.
  70. Cali AM, De Oliveira AM, Kim H, Chen S, Reyes-Mugica M, Escalera S, Dziura J, Taksali SE, Kursawe R, Shaw M, Savoye M, Pierpont B, Constable RT, Caprio S. Glucose dysregulation and hepatic steatosis in obese adolescents: is there a link? Hepatology 2009; 49: 1896-1903.
  71. Cali AM, Zern TL, Taksali SE, de Oliveira AM, Dufour S, Ot­vos JD, Caprio S. Intrahepatic fat accumulation and alterations in lipoprotein composition in obese adolescents: a perfect proathero­genic state. Diabetes Care 2007; 30: 3093-3098.
  72. Adams LA, Sanderson S, Lindor KD, Angulo P. The histological course of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a longitudinal study of 103 patients with sequential liver biopsies. J Hepatol 2005; 42: 132-138.
  73. Sanyal AJ, Banas C, Sargeant C, Luketic VA, Sterling RK, Stravitz RT, Shiffman ML, Heuman D, Coterrell A, Fisher RA, Contos MJ, Mills AS. Similarities and differences in outcomes of cirrhosis due to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatitis C. Hepatology 2006; 43: 682-689.
  74. Wieckowska A, Zein NN, Yerian LM, Wieckowska A, Zein NN, Yerian LM, López AR, McCullough AJ, Feldstein AE. In vivo as­sessment of liver cell apoptosis as a novel biomarker of disease seve­rity in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology 2006; 44: 27-33.
  75. Feldstein AE, Wieckowska A, López AR, Liu YC, Zein NN, Mc­Cullough AJ. Cytokeratin-18 fragment levels as noninvasive bio­markers for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a multicenter validation study. Hepatology 2009; 50: 1072-1078.
  76. Shannon A, Alkhouri N, Carter-Kent C, Monti L, Devito R, López R, Feldstein AE, Nobili V. Ultrasonographic quantitative estimation of hepatic steatosis in children With NAFLD. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2011; 53: 190-195.
  77. Kleiner DE, Brunt EM, Van Natta M, Behling C, Contos MJ, Cummings OW, Ferrell LD, Liu YC, Torbenson MS, Unalp- Arida A, Yeh M, McCullough AJ, Sanyal AJ; Nonalcoholic Stea­tohepatitis Clinical Research Network. Design and validation of a histological scoring system for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology 2005; 41: 1313-1321.
  78. Csendes GP, Paolinelli GP, Busel MD, Venturelli AV, Rodríguez J. Hígado graso: Ultrasonido y correlación anatomopatológica. Rev Chil Radiol [online] 2004; 10: 50-52.
  79. Kim DY, Park SH, Lee SS, Kim HJ, Kim SY, Kim MY, Lee Y, Kim TK, Khalili K, Bae MH, Lee JY, Lee SG, Yu ES. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography for the diagnosis of fatty liver: prospective study with same-day biopsy used as the reference stan­dard. Eur Radiol 2010; 20: 359-366.
  80. Bohte AE, van Werven JR, Bipat S, Stoker J. The diagnostic accuracy of US, CT, MRI and 1H-MRS for the evaluation of hepatic steatosis compared with liver biopsy: a meta-analysis. Eur Radiol 2011; 21: 87-97.
  81. Nobili V, Vizzutti F, Arena U, Abraldes JG, Marra F, Pietrobattista A, Fruhwirth R, Marcellini M, Pinzani M. Accuracy and reproduci­bility of transient elastography for the diagnosis of fibrosis in pedia­tric nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatology 2008; 48: 442-448.
  82. Chan WK, Nik Mustapha NR, Mahadeva S. Controlled atte­nuation parameter for the detection and quantification of hepatic steatosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Gastroenterol Hepa­tol 2014; 29: 1470-1476.
  83. Huwart L, Sempoux C, Vicaut E, Salameh N, Annet L, Danse E, Peeters F, ter Beek LC, Rahier J, Sinkus R, Horsmans Y, Van Beers BE. Magnetic resonance elastography for the noninvasive staging of liver fibrosis. Gastroenterology 2008; 135: 32-40.
  84. Brunt EM. Pathology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010; 7: 195-203.
  85. Schwimmer JB, Behling C, Newbury R, Deutsch R, Nievergelt C, Schork NJ, Lavine JE. Histopathology of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology 2005; 42: 641-649.
  86. Brunt EM, Kleiner DE, Wilson LA, Unalp A, Behling CE, Lavine JE, Neuschwander-Tetri BA; NASH Clinical Research Network. A list of members of the Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network can be found in the Appendix. Portal chro­nic inflammation in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): a histologic marker of advanced NAFLD-Clinicopathologic co­rrelations from the nonalcoholic steatohepatitis clinical research network. Hepatology 2009; 49: 809-820.
  87. Carter-Kent C, Yerian LM, Brunt EM, Angulo P, Kohli R, Ling SC, Xanthakos SA, Whitington PF, Charatcharoenwitthaya P, Yap J, López R, McCullough AJ, Feldstein AE. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in children: a multicenter clinicopathological stu­dy. Hepatology 2009; 50: 1113-1120.
  88. Alkhouri N, De Vito R, Alissi A, López R, Feldstein A, Nobili V. Development and validation of a new histological score for pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Journal of Hepatology 2012; 57: 1312-1318.
  89. Rodríguez G, Gallego S, Breidenassel C, Moreno LA, Gottrand F. Is liver transaminases assessment an appropriate tool for the scree­ning of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in at risk obese children and adolescents? Nutr Hosp 2010; 25: 712-717.
  90. Baratta F, Pastori D, Del Ben M, Polimeni L, Labbadia G, Di Santo S, Piemonte F, Tozzi G, Violi F, Angelico F. Reduced Lyso­somal Acid Lipase Activity in Adult Patients With Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. EBioMedicine 2015; 2: 750-754.
  91. Marzuillo P, Miraglia E, Santoro N. Pediatriac non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: new insights and future directions. World J Hepatol 2014; 6: 217-225.
  92. Browning JD, Szczepaniak LS, Dobbins R, Nuremberg P, Hor­ton JD, Cohen JC, Grundy SM, Hobbs HH. Prevalence of hepa­tic steatosis in an urban population in the United States: impact of ethnicity. Hepatology 2004; 40: 1387-1395.
  93. Yasutake K, Nakamuta M, Shima Y, Ohyama A, Masuda K, Ha­ruta N, Fujino T, Aoyagi Y, Fukuizumi K, Yoshimoto T, Take­moto R, Miyahara T, Harada N, Hayata F, Nakashima M, Enjoji M. Nutritional investigation of non-obese patients with non-al­coholic fatty liver disease: the significance of dietary cholesterol. Scand J Gastroenterol 2009; 44: 471-477.
  94. Dixon JB, Bhathal PS, O’Brien PE. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disea­se: predictors of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis in the severely obese. Gastroenterology 2001; 121: 91-100.
  95. Díaz Bustos E, Saavedra C, Meza J. Guía contemporánea de Salud y Ejercicio. Conarem, Santiago de Chile 2007.
  96. Basaranoglu M, Basaranoglu G, Sabuncu T, Sentürk H. Fructose as a key player in the development of fatty liver disease. World J Gastroenterol 2013; 19: 1166-1172.
  97. Mager DR, Roberts EA. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in chil­dren. Clin Liver Dis 2006; 10: 109-131, vi-vii.
  98. Della Corte C, Liccardo D, Ferrari F, Alisi A, Nobili V. Current pharmacotherapy for treating pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver di­sease. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2014; 15: 2501-2511.
  99. Nobili V, Alkhouri N, Alisi A, Della Corte C, Fitzpatrick E, Ra­poni M, Dhawan A. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a challenge for pediatricians. JAMA Pediatr 2015; 169: 170-176.
  100. Lavine JE. Vitamin E treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in children: a pilot study. J Pediatr 2000; 136: 734-738.
  101. Lavine JE, Schwimmer JB, Van Natta ML, Molleston JP, Murray KF, Rosenthal P, Abrams SH, Scheimann AO, Sanyal AJ, Chalasani N, Tonascia J, Ünalp A, Clark JM, Brunt EM, Kleiner DE, Hoofna­gle JH, Robuck PR. Effect of vitamin E or metformin for treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children and adolescents: the TONIC randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2011; 305: 1659-1668.
  102. Dasarathy J, Periyalwar P, Allampati S, Bhinder V, Hawkins C, Brandt P, Khiyami A, McCullough AJ, Dasarathy S. Hypovitaminosis D is associated with increased whole body fat mass and greater severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver Int 2014; 34: e118-e127.
  103. Bril F, Maximos M, Portillo-Sánchez P, Biernacki D, Lomonaco R, Subbarayan S, Correa M, Lo M, Suman A, Cusi K. Relation­ship of vitamin D with insulin resistance and disease severity in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. J Hepatol 2015; 62: 405-411.
  104. Nobili V, Svegliati-Baroni G, Alisi A, Miele L, Valenti L, Vajro P. A 360-degree overview of paediatric NAFLD: recent insights. J Hepatol 2013; 58: 1218-1229.
  105. Della Corte C, Alisi A, Iorio R, Alterio A, Nobili V. Expert opinion on current therapies for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2011; 12: 1901-1911.
  106. Alisi A, Bedogni G, Baviera G, Giorgio V, Porro E, Paris C, Giam­maria P, Reali L, Anania F, Nobili V. Randomised clinical trial: The beneficial effects of VSL#3 in obese children with non-alcoholic stea­tohepatitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2014; 39: 1276-1285.
  107. Alisi A, Nobili V. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children now: lifestyle changes and pharmacologic treatments. Nutrition 2012; 28: 722-726.
  108. Yokohama S, Yoneda M, Haneda M, Okamoto S, Okada M, Aso K, Hasegawa T, Tokusashi Y, Miyokawa N, Nakamura K. Thera­peutic efficacy of an angiotensin II receptor antagonist in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatology 2004; 40: 1222-1225.
  109. Ly NP, Litonjua A, Gold DR, Celedón JC. Gut microbiota, probiotics, and vitamin D: interrelated exposures influencing allergy, asthma, and obesity? J Allergy Clin Immunol 2011; 127: 1087-1094.
  110. Million M, Lagier JC, Yahav D, Paul. M. Gut bacterial micro­biota and obesity. Clin Microbiol Infect 2013; 19: 305-313.
  111. Wong VW, Won GL, Chim AM, Chu WC, Yeung DK, Li KC, Chan HL. Treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis with probio­tics. A proof-of-concept study. Ann Hepatol 2013; 12: 256-262.
  112. Ma YY, Li L, Yu CH, Shen Z, Chen LH, Li YM. Effects of pro­biotics on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol 2013; 19: 6911-6918.
  113. Vajro P, Mandato C, Licenziati MR, Franzese A, Vitale DF, Lenta S, Caropreso M, Vallone G, Meli R. Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG in pediatric obesity-related liver disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2011; 52: 740-743.
  114. Yadav H, Lee JH, Lloyd J, Walter P, Rane SG. Beneficial meta­bolic effects of a probiotic via butyrate-induced GLP-1 hormone secretion. J Biol Chem 2013; 288: 25088-25097.
  115. Plaza-Diaz J, Gomez-Llorente C, Abadia-Molina F, Saez-Lara MJ, Campaña-Martin L, Muñoz-Quezada S, Romero F, Gil A, Fontana L. Effects of Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bi­fidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 on hepatic steatosis in Zucker rats. PLoS One 2014; 9: e98401.
  116. Du J, Ma YY, Yu CH, Li YM. Effects of pentoxifylline on no­nalcoholic fatty liver disease: a meta-analysis. World J Gastroente­rol 2014; 20: 569-577.
  117. Schrieber SJ, Hawke RL, Wen Z, Smith PC, Reddy KR, Wahed AS, Belle SH, Afdhal NH, Navarro VJ, Meyers CM, Doo E, Fried MW. Differences in the disposition of silymarin between patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and chronic hepatitis C. Drug Metab Dispos 2011; 39: 2182-2190.
  118. Yao J, Zhi M, Minhu C. Effect of silybin on high-fat-induced fatty liver in rats. Braz J Med Biol Res 2011; 44: 652-659.
  119. Solhi H, Ghahremani R, Kazemifar AM, Hoseini Yazdi Z. Sily­marin in treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: A randomi­zed clinical trial. Caspian J Intern Med 2014; 5: 9-12.
  120. Polyak SJ, Ferenci P, Pawlotsky JM. Hepatoprotective and anti­viral functions of silymarin components in hepatitis C virus infec­tion. Hepatology 2013; 57: 1262-1271.
  121. Kim M, Yang SG, Kim JM, Lee JW, Kim YS, Lee JI. Silymarin suppresses hepatic stellate cell activation in a dietary rat model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: analysis of isolated hepatic stellate cells. Int J Mol Med 2012; 30: 473-479.
  122. Xanthakos SA, Kohli R. Treating pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with cysteamine: is adiponectin the key? J Pediatr 2012; 161: 579-581.
  123. Dohil R, Meyer L, Schmeltzer S, Cabrera BL, Lavine JE, Phillips SA. The effect of cysteamine bitartrate on adiponectin multime­rization in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and healthy subjects. J Pediatr 2012; 161: 639-645.
  124. Dohil R, Schmeltzer S, Cabrera BL, Wang T, Durelle J, Duke KB, Schwimmer JB, Lavine JE. Enteric-coated cysteamine for the treatment of paediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2011; 33: 1036-1044.
  125. Oberg HH, Juricke M, Kabelitz D, Wesch D. Regulation of T cell activation by TRL ligands. Eur J Cell Biol 2011; 90; 582-592.
  126. Takeuchi O, Akira S. Pattern recognition receptors and inflam­mation. Cell 2010; 140: 805-820.
  127. Dasu MR, Devaraj S, Park S, Jialal I. Increased toll-like receptor (TLR) activation and TLR ligands in recently diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects. Diabetes Care 2010; 33: 861-868.
  128. Dasu MR, Devaraj S, Zhao L, Hwang DH, Jialal I. High glu­cose induces toll-like receptor expression in human monocytes: mechanism of activation. Diabetes 2008; 57: 3090-3098.
  129. Seki E, Brenner DA. Toll-like receptors and adaptor molecules in liver disease update. Hepatology 2008; 48: 322-335.
  130. Isogawa M, Robek MD, Furuichi Y, Chisari FV.Toll-like recep­tor signaling inhibits hepatitis B virus replication in vivo. J Virol 2005; 79: 7269-7272.
  131. Seki E, Tsutsui H, Nakano H, Tsuji N, Hoshino K, Adachi O, Adachi K, Futatsugi S, Kuida K, Takeuchi O, Okamura H, Fuji­moto J, Akira S, Nakanishi K. Lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-18 secretion from murine Kupffer cells independently of myeloid di­fferentiation factor 88 that is critically involved in induction of pro­duction of IL-12 and IL-1beta. J Immunol 2001; 166: 2651-2657.
  132. Wu J, Meng Z, Jiang M, Zhang E, Trippler M, Broering R, Bucchi A, Krux F, Dittmer U, Yang D, Roggendorf M, Gerken G, Lu M, Schlaak JF. Toll-like receptor-induced innate immune responses in non-parenchymal liver cells are cell type-specific. Im­munology 2010; 129: 363-374.
  133. Paik YH, Schwabe RF, Bataller R, Russo MP, Jobin C, Brenner DA. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates inflammatory signaling by bac­terial lipopolysaccharide in human hepatic stellate cells. Hepato­logy 2003; 37: 1043-1055.
  134. Csak T, Velayudham A, Hritz I, Petrasek J, Levin I, Lippai D, Ca­talano D, Mandrekar P, Dolganiuc A, Kurt-Jones E, Szabo G. Defi­ciency in myeloid differentiation factor-2 and toll-like receptor 4 ex­pression attenuates nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis in mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2011; 300: G433-G441.
  135. Miura K, Kodama Y, Inokuchi S, Schnabl B, Aoyama T, Ohnis­hi H, Olefsky JM, Brenner DA, Seki E. Toll-like receptor 9 pro­motes steatohepatitis by induction of interleukin-1beta in mice. Gastroenterology 2010; 139: 323-334.
  136. Miura K, Yang L, van Rooijen N, Brenner DA, Ohnishi H, Seki E. Toll-like 2 and palmitic acid cooperatively contribute to the de­velopment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis through inflammasime activation in mice. Hepatology 2013; 57: 577-589.
  137. de Almeida IT, Cortez-Pinto H, Fidalgo G, Rodrígues D, Ca­milo ME. Plasma total and free fatty acids composition in human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Clin Nutr 2002; 21: 219-223.
  138. Lee JY, Ye J, Gao Z, Youn HS, Lee WH, Zhao L, Sizemore N, Hwang DH. Reciprocal modulation of Toll-like recepto-4 signa­ling pathways involving MyD88 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kina­se/AKT by saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Biol Chem 2003; 278: 37041-37051.
  139. Makishima M, Okamoto AY, Repa JJ, Tu H, Learned RM, Luk A, Hull MV, Lustig KD, Mangelsdorf DJ, Shan B. Identification of a nuclear receptor for bile acids. Science 1999; 284: 1362-1365.
  140. Mudaliar S, Henry RR, Sanyal AJ, Morrow L, Marschall HU, Kipnes M, Adorini L, Sciacca CI, Clopton P, Castelloe E, Dillon P, Pruzanski M, Shapiro D. Efficacy and safety of the farnesoid X receptor agonist obeticholic acid in patients with type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology 2013; 145: 574-582.
  141. Huber RM, Murphy K, Miao B, Link JR, Cunningham MR, Rupar MJ, Gunyuzlu PL, Haws TF, Kassam A, Powell F, Hollis GF, Young PR, Mukherjee R, Burn TC. Generation of multiple farnesoid-X-receptor isoforms through the use of alternative pro­moters. Gene 2002; 290: 35-43.
  142. Neuschwander-Tetri BA, Loomba R, Sanyal AJ, Lavine JE, Van Natta ML, Abdelmalek MF, Chalasani N, Dasarathy S, Diehl AM, Hameed B, Kowdley KV, McCullough A, Terrault N, Clark JM, Tonascia J, Brunt EM, Kleiner DE, Doo E; NASH Clinical Research Network. Farnesoid X nuclear receptor ligand obeticho­lic acid for non-cirrhotic, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (FLINT): a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2015; 385: 956-965.
  143. Singh S, Khera R, Allen AM, Murad MH, Loomba R. Com­parative effectiveness of pharmacological interventions for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. Hepatology 2015; 62: 1417-1432.
  144. Lee J, Hong SW, Rhee EJ, Lee WY. GLP-1 Receptor Agonist and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Diabetes Metab J 2012; 36: 262-267.
  145. Kelly AS, Rudser KD, Nathan BM, Fox CK, Metzig AM, Coombes BJ, Fitch AK, Bomberg EM, Abuzzahab MJ. The effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist therapy on body mass index in adolescents with severe obesity: a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. JAMA Pediatr 2013; 167: 355-360.
  146. Jinmi Lee, Seok-Woo Hong, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee. GLP-1 Receptor Agonist and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Diabetes Metab J 2012; 36: 262-267.
  147. Gupta N, Mells J, Dunham R, Grakoui A, Handy J, Saxena N, Anania F. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Is Present on Hu­man Hepatocytes and Has a Direct Role in Decreasing Hepatic Steatosis In Vitro by Modulating Elements of the Insulin Signa­ling Pathway. Hepatology 2010; 51: 1584-1592.
  148. Patel KR, White FV, Deutsch GH. Hepatic steatosis is prevalent in stillborns delivered to women with diabetes mellitus. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2015; 60(2): 152-158.
  149. Brumbaugh DE, Tearse P, Cree-Green M, Fenton LZ, Brown M, Scherzinger A, Reynolds R, Alston M, Hoffman C, Pan Z, Friedman JE, Barbour LA. Intrahepatic fat is increased in the neo­natal offspring of obese women with gestational diabetes. J Pediatr 2013; 162(5): 930-936.
  150. Modi N, Murgasova D, Ruager-Martin R, Thomas EL, Hyde MJ, Gale C, Santhakumaran S, Doré CJ, Alavi A, Bell JD. The influence of maternal body mass index on infant adiposity and hepatic lipid content. Pediatr Res 2011; 70(3): 287-291.
  151. Ugalde-Nicalo PA, Schwimmer JB. On the origin of pediatric nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2015; 60(2): 147-148.
 

Comentarios

Usted debe ingresar al sitio con su cuenta de usuario IntraMed para ver los comentarios de sus colegas o para expresar su opinión. Si ya tiene una cuenta IntraMed o desea registrase, ingrese aquí

AAIP RNBD
Términos y condiciones de uso | Todos los derechos reservados | Copyright 1997-2020