Diagnóstico y tratamiento | 16 NOV 15

Cetoacidosis diabética en adultos

La cetoacidosis diabética es un estado metabólico extremo causado por la deficiencia de insulina, especialmente en la diabetes tipo 1 y es posible prevenirla con la buena educación del paciente.
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Autor/a: Shivani Misra, Nick S. Oliver. Diabetic ketoacidosis in adults. BMJ 2015;351:h5660
INDICE:  1.  | 2. Bibliografía
Bibliografía

1 Schade D, Eaton RP, Alberti KGMM, Johnston DG. Diabetic coma: ketoacidotic and hyperosmolar. USA Univeristy of Mexico Press; 1981.
2 English P, Williams G. Hyperglycaemic crises and lactic acidosis in diabetes mellitus. Postgrad Med J 2004;80:253-61.
3 National Diabetes Audit 2012-2013. Report 2: complications and mortality. www.hscic.gov.uk/catalogue/PUB16496/nati-diab-audi-12-13-rep2.pdf.
4 Karges B, Rosenbauer J, Holterhus P-M, et al. Hospital admission for diabetic ketoacidosis or severe hypoglycemia in 31,330 young patients with type 1 diabetes. Eur J Endocrinol2015;173:341-50.
5 Dhatariya KK, Nunney I, Higgins K, Sampson M, Iceton G. A national survey of the management of diabetic ketoacidosis in the UK in 2014. Diabet Med 2015; published online 19 Aug.
6 Dhatariya K, Nunney I, Iceton G. Institutional factors in the management of adults with diabetic ketoacidosis in the UK: results of a national survey. Diabet Med 2015; published online 1 Aug.
7 Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Miles JM, Fisher JN. Hyperglycemic crises in adult patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009;32:1335-43.
8 Misra S, Oliver NS, Dornhorst A. Diabetic ketoacidosis: not always due to type 1 diabetes. BMJ 2013;346:3501.
9 Dhatariya KK, Savage M, Claydon A, et al. Joint British Diabetes Societies Inpatient Care Group: the management of diabetic ketoacidosis in adults, 2nd edn. 2013. www.diabetes.org.uk/Documents/About%20Us/What%20we%20say/Management-of-DKA-241013.pdf.
10 Savage MW, Dhatariya KK, Kilvert A, et al. Joint British Diabetes Societies guideline for the management of diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabet Med 2011;28:508-15.
11 Sacks DB, Arnold M, Bakris GL, et al. Guidelines and recommendations for laboratory analysis in the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus. Clin Chem 2011;57:e1-47.
12 Misra S, Oliver NS. Utility of ketone measurement in the prevention, diagnosis and management of diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabet Med 2015;32:14-23.
13 Klocke A, Phelan H, Twigg S, Craig M. Systematic review: blood beta-hydroxybutyrate vs. urine acetoacetate testing for the prevention and management of ketoacidosis in type 1 diabetes. Diabet Med 2013;30:818-24.
14 Sheikh-Ali M, Karon BS, Basu A, et al. Can serum beta-hydroxybutyrate be used to diagnose diabetic ketoacidosis ? Diabetes Care 2008;31:643-7.
15 Arora S, Henderson SO, Long T, Menchine M. Diagnostic accuracy of point-of-care testing for diabetic ketoacidosis at emergency-department triage: beta-hydroxybutyrate versus the urine dipstick. Diabetes Care 2011;34:852-4.
16 Samuelsson U, Ludvigsson J. When should determination of ketonemia be recommended? Diabetes Technol Ther 2002;4:645-50.
17 Van Zyl DG, Rheeder P, Delport E. Fluid management in diabetic-acidosis—Ringer’s lactate versus normal saline: a randomized controlled trial. QJM 2012;105:337-43.
18 Mahler SA, Conrad SA, Wang H, Arnold TC. Resuscitation with balanced electrolyte solution prevents hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. Am J Emerg Med 2011;29:670-4.
19 Skellett S, Mayer A, Durward A, Tibby SM, Murdoch IA. Chasing the base deficit: hyperchloraemic acidosis following 0.9% saline fluid resuscitation. Arch Dis Child 2000;83:514-6.
20 Chua H-R, Venkatesh B, Stachowski E, et al. Plasma-Lyte 148 vs 0.9% saline for fluid resuscitation in diabetic ketoacidosis. J Crit Care 2012;27:138-45.
21 Green SM, Rothrock SG, Ho JD, et al. Failure of adjunctive bicarbonate to improve outcome in severe pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis. Ann Emerg Med 1998;31:41-8.
22 Okuda Y, Adrogue HJ, Field JB, Nohara H, Yamashita K. Counterproductive effects of sodium bicarbonate in diabetic ketoacidosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996;81:314-20.
23 Handy JM, Soni N. Physiological effects of hyperchloraemia and acidosis. Br J Anaesth 2008;101:141-50.
24 Kitabchi AE, Murphy MB, Spencer J, et al. Is a priming dose of insulin necessary in a low-dose insulin protocol for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetes Care 2008;31:2081-5.
25 Umpierrez GE, Jones S, Smiley D, et al. Insulin analogs versus human insulin in the treatment of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care 2009;32:1164-9.
26 Crasto W, Htike ZZ, Turner L, Higgins K. Management of diabetic ketoacidosis following implementation of the JBDS guidelines : Where are we and where should we go ? Brit J Diab Vasc Dis 2015;15:11-6.
27 Basu A, Close CF, Jenkins D, Krentz AJ, Nattrass M, Wright AD. Persisting mortality in diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabet Med 1993;10:782.
28 Henriksen OM, Røder ME, Prahl JB, Svendsen OL. Diabetic ketoacidosis in Denmark: incidence and mortality estimated from public health registries. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2007;76:51-6.
29 Hsia E, Seggelke S, Gibbs J, et al. Subcutaneous administration of glargine to diabetic patients receiving insulin infusion prevents rebound hyperglycemia. J Clin EndocrinolMetab 2012;97:3132-7.
30 DAFNE Study Group. Training in flexible, intensive insulin management to enable dietary freedom in people with type 1 diabetes: dose adjustment for normal eating (DAFNE) randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2002;325:746.
31 Elliott J, Jacques RM, Kruger J, et al. Research: educational and psychological issues substantial reductions in the number of diabetic ketoacidosis and severe hypoglycaemia episodes requiring emergency treatment lead to reduced costs after structured education in adults with type 1 diabetes. Diabet Med 2014;31:847-53.
32 National Diabetes Audit: report into the data quality of diabetes structured education. www.hqip.org.uk/assets/NCAPOP-Library/NCAPOP-2012-13/Diabetes-Audit-Report-10-11-StructuredEducation-pub-2012.pdf.
33 Laffel LMB, Wentzell K, Loughlin C, Tovar A, Moltz K, Brink S. Sick day management using blood 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-OHB) compared with urine ketone monitoring reduces hospital visits in young people with T1DM: a randomized clinical trial. Diabet Med 2006;23:278-84.

 

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