Criterios diagnósticos | 28 JUL 14

Problemas del embarazo intrauterino no viable al comienzo del primer trimestre

Ecografía pélvica y concentración sérica de la gonadotrofina coriónica humana (GCh), pruebas fundamentales para el diagnóstico y manejo de los problemas del embarazo temprano.
4
15
Autor/a: Dr. Peter M. Doubilet, Carol B. Benson, Tom Bourne, Michael Blaivas N Engl J Med 2013;369:1443-51.
INDICE:  1.  | 2. Referencias
Referencias

1. Creanga AA, Shapiro-Mendoza CK, Bish CL, Zane S, Berg CJ, Callaghan WM. Trends in ectopic pregnancy mortality in the United States, 1980-2007. Obstet Gynecol 2011;117:837-43.
2. Barnhart KT. Ectopic pregnancy. N Engl J Med 2009;361:379-87.
3. Doubilet PM, Benson CB. First, do no harm to early pregnancies. J Ultrasound Med 2010;29:685-9.
4. Barnhart KT. Early pregnancy failure: beware of the pitfalls of modern management. Fertil Steril 2012;98:1061-5.
5. Nurmohamed L, Moretti ME, Schechter T, et al. Outcome following high-dose methotrexate in pregnancies misdiagnosed as ectopic. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011; 205(6):533.e1-533.e3.
6. Shwayder JM. Waiting for the tide to change: reducing risk in the turbulent sea of liability. Obstet Gynecol 2010;116:8-15.
7. Misdiagnosed ectopic, given methotrexate. Facebook website (http://www.facebook .com/groups/misduagnosedectopic/).
8. Doubilet P. A mathematical approach to interpretation and selection of diagnostic tests. Med Decis Making 1983;3: 177-95.
9. Jeve Y, Rana R, Bhide A, Thangaratinam S. Accuracy of first trimester ultrasound in the diagnosis of early embryonic demise: a systematic review. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2011;38:489-96.
10. Abdallah Y, Daemen A, Kirk E, et al. Limitations of current definitions of miscarriage using mean gestational sac diameter and crown–rump length measurements:a multicenter observational study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2011;38:497-502.
11. Hamilton J, Hamilton J. The 6 mm crown–rump length threshold for detecting fetal heart movements — what is the evidence? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2011; 38:Suppl 1:7. abstract.
12. Doubilet PM, Benson CB. Further evidence against the reliability of the human chorionic gonadotropin discriminatory level. J Ultrasound Med 2011;30:1637-42.
13. Thilaganathan B. The evidence base for miscarriage diagnosis: better late than never. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2011;38:487-8.
14. Bree RL, Edwards M, B.hm-Velez M, Beyler S, Roberts J, Mendelson EB. Transvaginal sonography in the evaluation of normal early pregnancy: correlation with hCG level. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1989;153: 75-9.
15. Goldstein I, Zimmer EA, Tamir A, Peretz BA, Paldi E. Evaluation of normal gestational sac growth: appearance of embryonic heartbeat and embryo body movements using the transvaginal technique. Obstet Gynecol 1991;77:885-8.
16. Bradley WG, Fiske CE, Filly RA. The double sac sign of early intrauterine pregnancy: use in exclusion of ectopic pregnancy. Radiology 1982;143:223-6.
17. Yeh H-C, Goodman JD, Carr L, Rabinowitz JG. Intradecidual sign: a US criterion of early intrauterine pregnancy. Radiology 1986;161:463-7.
18. Doubilet PM, Benson CB. Double sac sign and intradecidual sign in early pregnancy: interobserver reliability and frequency of occurrence. J Ultrasound Med 2013;32:1207-14.
19. Benson CB, Doubilet PM, Peters HE, Frates MC. Intrauterine fluid with ectopic pregnancy: a  reappraisal. J Ultrasound Med 2013;32:389-93.
20. Barnhart K, van Mello NM, Bourne T, et al. Pregnancy of unknown location: a consensus statement of nomenclature, definitions, and outcome. Fertil Steril 2011;95:857-66.
21. Mueller CE. Intrauterine pseudogestational sac in ectopic pregnancy. J Clin Ultrasound 1979;7:133-6.
22. Ackerman TE, Levi CS, Lyons EA, Dashefsky SM, Lindsay DJ, Holt SC. Decidual cyst: endovaginal sonographic sign of ectopic pregnancy. Radiology 1993;189: 727-31.
23. Levi CS, Lyons EA, Zheng XH, Lindsay DJ, Holt SC. Endovaginal ultrasound: demonstration of cardiac activity in embryos of less than 5.0 mm in crown-rump length. Radiology 1990;176:71-4.
24. Goldstein SR. Significance of cardiac activity on endovaginal ultrasound in very early embryos. Obstet Gynecol 1992;80: 670-2.
25. Brown DL, Emerson DS, Felker RE, Cartier MS, Smith WC. Diagnosis of embryonic demise by endovaginal sonography. J Ultrasound Med 1990;9:631-6.
26. Pennell RG, Needleman L, Pajak T, et al. Prospective comparison of vaginal and abdominal sonography in normal early pregnancy. J Ultrasound Med 1991;10:63-7.
27. AIUM Practice Guideline for the performance of pelvic ultrasound examinations. J Ultrasound Med 2010;29:166-72.
28. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 101: ultrasonography in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2009;113:451-61.
29. Levi CS, Dashefsky SM, Lyons EA, Holt SC, Lindsay DJ. First trimester ultrasound. In: McGahan JP, Goldberg BB, eds. Diagnostic ultrasound: a logical approach. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1998:127-53.
30. Moore C, Promes SB. Ultrasound in pregnancy. Emerg Clin North Am 2004; 22:697-722.
31. Deutchman M, Tubay AT, Turok DK. First trimester bleeding. Am Fam Physician 2009;79:985-94.
32. Pexsters A, Luts J, van Schoubroeck D, et al. Clinical implications of intra- and interobserver reproducibility of transvaginal sonographic measurements of gestational sac and crown-rump length at 6-9 weeks’ gestation. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2011;38:510-5.
33. Levi CS, Lyons EA, Lindsay DJ. Early diagnosis of nonviable pregnancy with endovaginal US. Radiology 1988;167:383-5.
34. Tongsong T, Wanapirak C, Sirsomboon J, Sirichotiyakul S, Polsrisuthikul T, Pongsatha S. Transvaginal ultrasound in threatened abortions with empty gestational sacs. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1994;46:297-301.
35. Rowling SE, Coleman BG, Langer JE, Arger PH, Nisenbaum HL, Horii SC. Firsttrimester US parameters of failed pregnancy. Radiology 1997;203:211-7.
36. Abdallah Y, Daemen A, Guha S, et al. Gestational sac and embryonic growth are not useful as criteria to define miscarriage: a multicenter study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2011;38:503-9.
37. Savitz DA, Terry JW Jr, Dole N, Thorp JM Jr, Siega-Riz AM, Herring AH. Comparison of pregnancy dating by last menstrual period, ultrasound scanning,  and their combination. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;187:1660-6.
38. Yegul NT, Filly RA. Further observations on the “empty amnion sign.” J Clin Ultrasound 2010;38:113-7.
39. Lindsay DJ, Lovett IS, Lyons EA, et al. Yolk sac diameter and shape at endovaginal US: predictors of pregnancy outcome in the first trimester. Radiology 1992;183: 115-8.
40. Bromley B, Harlow BL, Laboda LA, Benacerraf BR. Small sac size in the first trimester: a predictor of poor fetal outcome. Radiology 1991;178:375-7.
41. Condous G, Van Calster B, Kirk E, et al. Prediction of ectopic pregnancy in women with a pregnancy of unknown location. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2007;29:680-7.
42. Kirk E, Condous G, Van Calster B, Van Huffel S, Timmerman D, Bourne T. Rationalizing the follow-up of pregnancies of unknown location. Hum Reprod 2007;22: 1744-50.
43. Condous G, Kirk E, Lu C, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of varying discriminatory zones for the prediction of ectopic pregnancy in women with a pregnancy of unknown location. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2005;26:770-5.
44. Kadar N, DeVore G, Romero R. Discriminatory hCG zone: its use in the sonographic evaluation for ectopic pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1981;58:156-61.
45. Bree RL, Edwards M, Bohm-Vélez M, Beyler S, Roberts J, Mendelson EB. Transvaginal sonography in the evaluation of early pregnancy: correlation with hCG level. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1989;153:75-9.
46. Bernaschek G, Rudelstorfer R, Csaicsich P. Vaginal sonography versus serum human chorionic gonadotropin in early detection of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988;158:608-12.
47. Bateman BG, Nunley WC Jr, Kolp LA, Kitchin JD III, Felder R. Vaginal sonography findings and hCG dynamics of early intrauterine and tubal pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol 1990;75:421-7.
48. Mehta TS, Levine D, Beckwith B. Treatment of ectopic pregnancy: is a human chorionic gonadotropin level of 2000 mIU/ml a reasonable threshold? Radiology 1997; 205:569-73.
49. Connolly A, Ryan DH, Stuebe AM, Wolfe HM. Reevaluation of discriminatory and threshold levels for serum hCG in early pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2013;121: 65-70.
50. Shaunik A, Kulp J, Appleby DH, Sammel MD, Barnhart KT. Utility of dilation and curettage in the diagnosis of pregnancy of unknown location. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011;204(2):130.e1-136.e1
51. Bignardi T, Condous G, Alhamdan D, et al. The hCG ratio can predict the ultimate viability of the intrauterine pregnancies of uncertain viability in the pregnancy of unknown location population. Hum Reprod 2008;23:1964-7.
52. Sagili H, Mohamed K. Pregnancy of unknown location: an evidence-based approach to management. Obstet Gynaecol 2008;10:224-30.
53. Adhikari S, Blaivas M, Lyon M. Diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy using bedside transvaginal ultrasonography in the ED: a 2-year experience. Am J Emerg Med 2007;25:591-6.
54. Hahn SA, Lavonas EJ, Mace SE, Napoli AM, Fesmire FM. Critical issues in the initial evaluation and management of patients presenting to the emergency department in early pregnancy. Ann Emerg Med 2012;60:381-90.
55. Galstyan K, Kurzel R. Serum beta-hCG titers do not predict ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Int J Fertil Womens Med 2006;51:14-6.
 

 

Comentarios

Usted debe ingresar al sitio con su cuenta de usuario IntraMed para ver los comentarios de sus colegas o para expresar su opinión. Si ya tiene una cuenta IntraMed o desea registrase, ingrese aquí

AAIP RNBD
Términos y condiciones de uso | Todos los derechos reservados | Copyright 1997-2020