1 Evans CJ, Fowkes FGR, Ruckley CV, Lee AJ. Prevalence of varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency in men and women in the general population: Edinburgh Vein Study. J Epidemiol Community Health 1999;53:149-53.
2 Shepherd AC, Gohel MS, Lim CS, Davies AH. A study to compare disease-specific quality of life with clinical anatomical and hemodynamic assessments in patients with varicose veins. J Vasc Surg 2011;53:374-82.
3 Smith JJ, Garratt AM, Guest M, Greenhalgh RM, Davies AH. Evaluating and improving health-related quality of life in patients with varicose veins. J Vasc Surg 1999;30:710-9.
4 Carpentier PH, Maricq HR, Biro C, Ponçot-Makinen CO, Franco A. Prevalence, risk factors, and clinical patterns of chronic venous disorders of lower limbs: a population-based study in France. J Vasc Surg 2004;40:650-9.
5 Bergan JJ, Schmid-Schönbein GW, Coleridge Smith PD, Nicolaides AN, Boisseau MR, Eklof B. Chronic venous disease. N Engl J Med 2006;355:488-98.
6 Lim CS, Gohel MS, Shepherd AC, Davies AH. Secondary care treatment of patients with varicose veins in National Health Service England: at least how it appeared on a National Health Service website. Phlebology 2010;25:184-9.
7 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Varicose veins in the legs—the diagnosis and management of varicose veins. (Clinical guideline 168.) 2013. http://guidance.nice. org.uk/CG168.
8 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Radiofrequency ablation of varicose veins. (Interventional procedure guidance 8.) 2003. http://guidance.nice.org.uk/IPG8.
9 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Endovenous laser treatment of the long saphenous vein. (Interventional procedure guidance 52.) 2004. http://guidance.nice. org.uk/IPG52.
10 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy for varicose veins. (Interventional procedure guidance 440.) 2013. http://guidance.nice. org.uk/IPG440.
11 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Obesity: the prevention, identification, assessment and management of overweight and obesity in adults and children. (Clinical guideline 43.) 2006. http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG43.
12 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Antenatal care: routine care for the healthy pregnant woman. (Clinical guideline 62.) 2008. http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG62.
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