1 Kassebaum NJ, Jasrasaria R, Naghavi M et al. A systematic analysis of global anemia burden from 1990 to 2010. Blood 2014;123:615–24.
2 Camaschella C. Iron deficiency. Blood 2019;133:30–9.
3 World Health Organization. Haemoglobin concentrations for the diagnosis of anaemia and assessment of severity. WHO, 2011. Available from www.who.int/vmnis/indicators/haemoglobin/en/ [Accessed 6 February 2020].
4 Houston BL, Hurrie D, Graham J et al. Efficacy of iron supplementation on fatigue and physical capacity in non-anaemic iron-deficient adults: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. BMJ Open 2018;8:e019240.
5 Grote Beverborg N, Klip IjT, Meijers WC et al. Definition of iron deficiency based on the gold standard of bone marrow iron staining in heart failure patients. Circ Heart Fail 2018;11:e004519.
6 Daru J, Allotey J, Peña-Rosas JP, Khan KS. Serum ferritin thresholds for the diagnosis of iron deficiency in pregnancy: a systematic review: Serum ferritin for defining iron deficiency in pregnancy. Transfusion Med 2017;27:167–74.
7 Soppi ET. Iron deficiency without anemia – a clinical challenge. Clin Case Rep 2018;6:1082–6.
8 Cappellini MD, Comin-Colet J, de Francisco A et al. Iron deficiency across chronic inflammatory conditions: International expert opinion on definition, diagnosis, and management. Am J Hematol 2017;92:1068–78.
9 Cohen-Solal A, Leclercq C, Mebazaa A et al. Diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency in patients with heart failure: Expert position paper from French cardiologists. Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2014;107:563–71.
10 Anand IS, Gupta P. Anemia and iron deficiency in heart failure: current concepts and emerging therapies. Circulation 2018;138:80–98.
11 Pfeiffer CM, Looker AC. Laboratory methodologies for indicators of iron status: strengths, limitations, and analytical challenges. Am J Clin Nutr 2017:1606S-1614S.
12 Nikolaou M, Chrysohoou C, Georgilas TA et al. Management of iron deficiency in chronic heart failure: Practical considerations for clinical use and future directions. Eur J Int Med 2019;65:17–25.
13 Soppi E. Iron deficiency without anemia – common, important, neglected. Clin Case Rep 2019;5:2–7.
14 Haider LM, Schwingshackl L, Hoffmann G, Ekmekcioglu C. The effect of vegetarian diets on iron status in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2018;58:
15 Clénin G. The treatment of iron deficiency without anaemia (in otherwise healthy persons). Swiss Med Wkly 2017;147:w14434.
16 Suedekum NA, Dimeff RJ. Iron and the athlete. Curr Sports Med Rep 2005;4:199–202.
17 Clénin G, Cordes M, Huber A et al. Iron deficiency in sports – definition, influence on performance and therapy. Swiss Med Wkly 2015;145:w14196.
18 Steenackers N, Van der Schueren B, Mertens A et al. Iron deficiency after bariatric surgery: what is the real problem? Proc Nutr Soc 2018;77:445–55.
19 Kulnigg-Dabsch S. Autoimmune gastritis. Wien Med Wochenschr 2016;166:424–30.
20 Lönnerdal B. Calcium and iron absorption - mechanisms and public health relevance. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2010;80:293–9.
21 Johnson S, Lang A, Sturm M, O’Brien SH. Iron deficiency without anemia: a common yet under-recognized diagnosis in young women with heavy menstrual bleeding. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2016;29:628–31.
22 Ferguson WS. Iron deficiency in adolescence. J Paediatr 2017;187:2.
23 Miller JL. Iron deficiency anemia: a common and curable disease. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2013;3:a011866.
24 Hemingway AB. Angiodysplasia as a cause of iron deficiency anaemia. Blood Rev 1989;3:147–51.
25 Zimmermann MB, Hurrell RF. Nutritional iron deficiency. Lancet 2007;370:511–20.
26 Silverstein TP, Kirk SR, Meyer SC, Holman KLM. Myoglobin structure and function: A multiweek biochemistry laboratory project. Biochem Mol Biol Educ 2015;43:181–8.
27 Haas JD, Brownlie T. Iron deficiency and reduced work capacity: a critical review of the research to determine a causal relationship. J Nutr 2001;131:676S–690S.
28 Melenovsky V, Petrak J, Mracek T et al. Myocardial iron content and mitochondrial function in human heart failure: a direct tissue analysis. Eur J Heart Fail 2017;19:522–30.
29 Xu W, Barrientos T, Mao L, Rockman HA, Sauve AA, Andrews NC. Lethal Cardiomyopathy in Mice Lacking Transferrin Receptor in the Heart. Cell Reports 2015;13:533–45.
30 Hoes MF, Grote Beverborg N, Kijlstra JD et al. Iron deficiency impairs contractility of human cardiomyocytes through decreased mitochondrial function. Eur J Heart Fail 2018;20:910–9.
31 Charles-Edwards G, Amaral N, Sleigh A et al. Effect of iron isomaltoside on skeletal muscle energetics in patients with chronic heart failure and iron deficiency: FERRIC-HF II randomized mechanistic trial. Circulation 2019;139:2386–98.
32 Okonko DO, Grzeslo A, Witkowski T et al. Effect of intravenous iron sucrose on exercise tolerance in anemic and nonanemic patients with symptomatic chronic heart failure and iron deficiency. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008;51:103–12.
33 Çekiç C, ipek S, Aslan F et al. The effect of intravenous iron treatment on quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease patients with nonanemic iron deficiency. Gastroenterol Res Pract 2015;2015:582163.
34 Burden RJ, Morton K, Richards T et al. Is iron treatment beneficial in, iron-deficient but non-anaemic (IDNA) endurance athletes? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med 2015;49:1389–97.
35 Stugiewicz M, Tkaczyszyn M, Kasztura M et al. The influence of iron deficiency on the functioning of skeletal muscles: experimental evidence and clinical implications: Iron deficiency and skeletal muscles. Eur J Heart Fail 2016;18:762–73.
36 van der Meer P, van der Wal HH, Melenovsky V. Mitochondrial function, skeletal muscle metabolism, and iron deficiency in heart failure. Circulation 2019;139:2399–402.
37 Zhou B, Tian R. Mitochondrial dysfunction in pathophysiology of heart failure. J Clin Invest 2018;128:3716–26.
38 Juul SE, Derman RJ, Auerbach M. Perinatal iron deficiency: implications for mothers and infants. Neonatology 2019;115:269–74.
39 Ribot B, Aranda N, Viteri F et al. Depleted iron stores without anaemia early in pregnancy carries increased risk of lower birthweight even when supplemented daily with moderate iron. Hum Reprod 2012;27:1260–6.
40 Georgieff MK. Iron deficiency in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2020;223:516–24.
41 Lozoff B, Jimenez E, Smith JB. Double burden of iron deficiency in infancy and low socioeconomic status: a longitudinal analysis of cognitive test scores to age 19 years. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2006;160:1108.
42 Bastian TW, von Hohenberg WC, Mickelson DJ et al. Iron deficiency impairs developing hippocampal neuron gene expression, energy metabolism, and dendrite complexity. Dev Neurosci 2016;38: 264–76.
43 Franchini M, Marano G, Veropalumbo E et al. Patient blood management: a revolutionary approach to transfusion medicine. Blood Transfusion [Internet]. 2019 Jun 19 [cited 2020 Sep 16]; Available from: http://doi.org/10.2450/2019.0109-19.
44 Muñoz M, Gómez-Ramírez S, Besser M, Pavía J, Gomollón F, Liumbruno GM, et al. Current misconceptions in diagnosis and management of iron deficiency. Blood Transfus 2019;17:191–5.
45 Spahn DR, Schoenrath F, Spahn GH et al. Effect of ultra-short-term treatment of patients with iron deficiency or anaemia undergoing cardiac surgery: a prospective randomised trial. Lancet 2019;393:2201–12.
46 Cuenca J, García-Erce JA, Martínez F et al. Preoperative haematinics and transfusion protocol reduce the need for transfusion after total knee replacement. Int J Surg 2007;5:89–94.
47 Kotzé A, Harris A, Baker C et al. British Committee for standards in haematology guidelines on the identification and management of pre-operative anaemia. Br J Haematol 2015;171:322–31.
48 Muñoz M, Acheson AG, Auerbach M et al. International consensus statement on the peri-operative management of anaemia and iron deficiency. Anaesthesia 2017;72:233–47.
49 Alleyne M, Horne MK, Miller JL. Individualized treatment for iron-deficiency anemia in adults. Am J Med 2008;121:943–8.
50 Baird-Gunning J, Bromley J. Correcting iron deficiency. Aust Prescr 2016;39:193–9.
51 Stoffel NU, Cercamondi CI, Brittenham G et al. Iron absorption from oral iron supplements given on consecutive versus alternate days and as single morning doses versus twice-daily split dosing in iron-depleted women: two open-label, randomised controlled trials. Lancet Haematol 2017;4:e524–33.
52 Muñoz M, Gómez-Ramírez S, Bhandari S. The safety of available treatment options for iron-deficiency anemia. Expert Opin Drug Saf 2018;17:149–59.
53 Auerbach M, Deloughery T. Single-dose intravenous iron for iron deficiency: a new paradigm. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2016;2016:57–66.
54 von Haehling S, Ebner N, Evertz R et al. Iron deficiency in heart failure. JACC Heart Fail 2019;7:36–46.
55 Kaitha S, Bashir M, Ali T. Iron deficiency anemia in inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol 2015;6:62–72.
56 Krayenbuehl P-A, Battegay E, Breymann C, Furrer J, Schulthess G. Intravenous iron for the treatment of fatigue in nonanemic, premenopausal women with low serum ferritin concentration. Blood 2011;118:3222–7.
57 Gómez-Ramírez S, Shander A, Spahn DR et al. Prevention and management of acute reactions to intravenous iron in surgical patients. Blood Transfus 2019;17:137–45.
58 Auerbach M, Macdougall I. The available intravenous iron formulations: History, efficacy, and toxicology: The available intravenous iron formulations. Hemodial Int 2017;21:S83–92.
59 Auerbach M, Adamson J, Bircher A et al. On the safety of intravenous iron, evidence trumps conjecture. Haematologica 2015;100:e214–215.
60 Szebeni J, Fishbane S, Hedenus M et al. Hypersensitivity to intravenous iron: classification, terminology, mechanisms and management: Hypersensitivity reactions to intravenous iron. B J Pharmacol 2015;172:5025–36.
61 Joint Formulary Committee. British National Formulary. https://about.medicinescomplete.com/publication/british-national-formulary/.
62 Abdulrehman J, Tang GH, Auerbach M et al. The safety and efficacy of ferumoxytol in the treatment of iron deficiency: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Transfusion 2019;59:3646–56.
63 Chertow GM, Mason PD, Vaage-Nilsen O, Ahlmén J. Update on adverse drug events associated with parenteral iron. Nephrol Dial Transplantation 2006;21:378–82.
Para ver los comentarios de sus colegas o para expresar su opinión debe ingresar con su cuenta de IntraMed.