Una guía para la evaluación de los pacientes | 15 SEP 19

Hiponatremia en atención primaria

La hiponatremia es la anormalidad electrolítica más frecuentemente observada; su forma leve se asocia con déficit cognitivo y caídas, pero en los pacientes hospitalizados se asocia con aumento de la mortalidad
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Autor: Peter Jacob, Claire Dow, Shawarna S. Lasker, William M. Drake y col. BMJ 2019;365:l1774.
INDICE:  1. Texto principal | 2. Referencias bibliográficas
Referencias bibliográficas

1 Giordano M, Ciarambino T, Castellino P, etal . Diseases associated with electrolyte imbalance in the ED: age-related differences. Am J Emerg Med 2016;34:1923-6. 10.1016/j.ajem.2016.05.056 27475041

2 Upadhyay A, Jaber BL, Madias NE. Incidence and prevalence of hyponatremia. Am J Med 2006;119(Suppl 1):S30-5. 10.1016/j.amjmed.2006.05.005 16843082

3 Spasovski G, Vanholder R, Allolio B, etal. Hyponatraemia Guideline Development Group. Clinical practice guideline on diagnosis and treatment of hyponatraemia. Eur J Endocrinol2014;170:G1-47. 10.1530/EJE-13-1020 24569125

4 Verbalis JG, Goldsmith SR, Greenberg A, etal . Diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of hyponatremia: expert panel recommendations. Am J Med 2013;126(Suppl 1):S1-42. 10.1016/j.amjmed.2013.07.006 24074529

5 Renneboog B, Musch W, Vandemergel X, Manto MU, Decaux G. Mild chronic hyponatremia is associated with falls, unsteadiness, and attention deficits. Am J Med 2006;119:e1-8. 10.1016/j.amjmed.2005.09.026 16431193

6 Usala RL, Fernandez SJ, Mete M, etal . Hyponatremia is associated with increased osteoporosis and bone fractures in a large US health system population. J Clin EndocrinolMetab 2015;100:3021-31. 10.1210/jc.2015-1261 26083821

7 Chung HM, Kluge R, Schrier RW, Anderson RJ. Clinical assessment of extracellular fluid volume in hyponatremia. Am J Med 1987;83:905-8. 10.1016/0002-9343(87)90649-8 3674097

8 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries. Hyponatraemia. 2015. https://cks.nice.org.uk/hyponatraemia.

9 Clayton JA, Rodgers S, Blakey J, Avery A, Hall IP. Thiazide diuretic prescription and electrolyte abnormalities in primary care. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2006;61:87-95. 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2005.02531.x 16390355

10 OpenPrescribing.net. EBM DataLab, University of  Oxford 2017. Thiazide and thiazide like prescriptions in primary care 2018. https://openprescribing.net/analyse/#org=CCG&numIds=2.2.1&denom=nothing&selectedTab=chart

11 Clayton JA, Le Jeune IR, Hall IP. Severe hyponatraemia in medical in-patients: aetiology, assessment and outcome. QJM 2006;99:505-11. 10.1093/qjmed/hcl071 16861720

12 Cumming K, Hoyle GE, Hutchison JD, Soiza RL. Prevalence, incidence and etiology of hyponatremia in elderly patients with fragility fractures. PLoS One 2014;9:e88272.10.1371/journal.pone.0088272 24505459

13 Al Qahtani M, Alshahrani A, Alskaini A, etal . Prevalence of hyponatremia among patients who used indapamide and hydrochlorothiazide: a single center retrospective study. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2013;24:281-5. 10.4103/1319-2442.109574 23538350

14 Friedman E, ShadelM, Halkin H, Farfel Z. Thiazide-induced hyponatremia. Reproducibility by single dose rechallenge and an analysis of pathogenesis. Ann Intern Med 1989;110:24-30. 10.7326/0003-4819-110-1-24 2491733

15 Sonnenblick M, Friedlander Y, Rosin AJ. Diuretic-induced severe hyponatremia. Review and analysis of 129 reported patients. Chest 1993;103:601-6. 10.1378/chest.103.2.601 8432162

16 Farmand S, Lindh JD, Calissendorff J, etal . Differences in associations of antidepressants and hospitalization due to hyponatremia. Am J Med 2018;131:56-63.

10.1016/j.amjmed.2017.07.025 28803926

17 Meulendijks D, Mannesse CK, Jansen PAF, van Marum RJ, Egberts TCG. Antipsychotic-induced hyponatraemia: a systematic review of the published evidence. Drug Saf 2010;33:101-14. 10.2165/11319070-000000000-00000 20082537

18 Leth-Møller KB, Hansen AH, Torstensson M, etal . Antidepressants and the risk of hyponatremia: a Danish register-based population study. BMJ Open 2016;6:e011200. 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011200 27194321

19 NHS Specialist Pharmacy Service. If antidepressant-induced hyponatraemia has been diagnosed, how should the depression be treated. 2017. https://www.sps.nhs.uk/wpcontent/uploads/2017/02/UKMI_QA_AntidpressantHyponatraemia_May_2017.docx

20 Intravooth T, Staack AM, Juerges K, Stockinger J, Steinhoff BJ. Antiepileptic drugs-induced hyponatremia: Review and analysis of 560 hospitalized patients. Epilepsy Res 2018; 143:7-10. 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2018.03.023 29631131

21 Gandhi S, Mcarthur E, Reiss JP, et al. Atypical antipsychotic medications and hiponatremia in older adults: a population-based cohort study. 2016. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4827184/pdf/40697_2016_Article_111.pdf

22 Gandhi S, Shariff SZ, Al-Jaishi A, et al. Original investigation second-generation antidepressants and hyponatremia risk: a population-based cohort study of older adults. 2017. 10.1053/j.ajkd.2016.08.020

23 Kahn T. Reset osmostat and salt and water retention in the course of severe hyponatremia. Medicine (Baltimore) 2003;82:170-6. 10.1097/01.md.0000076007.64510.15 12792303

24 Heuman DM, Abou-Assi SG, Habib A, etal . Persistent ascites and low serum sodium identify patients with cirrhosis and low MELD scores who are at high risk for early death. Hepatology 2004;40:802-10. 10.1002/hep.1840400409 15382176

25 Srinivasan S, Narasimhan M. Psychogenic polydipsia.  BMJ Best Pract Guidel. Psychogenic polydipsia. https://bestpractice.bmj.com/topics/en-gb/865/pdf/865.pdf

26 Miller M. Fluid and electrolyte homeostasis in the elderly: physiological changes of ageing and clinical consequences. Baillieres Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;11:367-87. 10.1016/S0950-351X(97)80347-3 9403127d

 

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