Una revisión de las evidencias disponibles | 01 SEP 19

Diagnóstico y tratamiento de la tirotoxicosis

En esta revisión se analizan las causas más frecuentes de la tirotoxicosis, su diagnóstico y tratamiento y los posibles cambios a futuro
Autor: Sharma A, Stan MN Mayo Clin Proc. 2019; 94(6):1048-1064
INDICE:  1. Texto principal | 2. Referencias bibliográficas
Referencias bibliográficas


1. Ross DS, Burch HB, Cooper DS, et al. 2016 American Thyroid Association guidelines for diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis [published correction appears in Thyroid. 2017;27(11):1462]. Thyroid. 2016;26(10):1343-1421.

2. Hollowell JG, Staehling NW, Flanders WD, et al. Serum TSH, T4, and thyroid antibodies in the United States population (1988 to 1994): National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87(2):489-499.

3. Tunbridge WM, Evered DC, Hall R, et al. The spectrum of thyroid disease in a community: the Whickham survey. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1977;7(6):481-493.

4. Golden SH, Robinson KA, Saldanha I, Anton B, Ladenson PW. Prevalence and incidence of endocrine and metabolic disorders in the United States: a comprehensive review. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94(6):1853-1878.

5. Laurberg P, Bülow Pedersen I, Knudsen N, Ovesen L, Andersen S. Environmental iodine intake affects the type of nonmalignant thyroid disease. Thyroid. 2001;11(5):457-469.

6. Abraham-Nordling M, Byström K, Törring O, et al. Incidence of hyperthyroidism in Sweden. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011;165(6):899-905.

7. Schwartz F, Bergmann N, Zerahn B, Faber J. Incidence rate of symptomatic painless thyroiditis presenting with thyrotoxicosis in Denmark as evaluated by consecutive thyroid scintigraphies. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2013;73(3):240-244.

8. Nikolai TF, Brosseau J, Kettrick MA, Roberts R, Beltaos E. Lymphocytic thyroiditis with spontaneously resolving hyperthyroidism (silent thyroiditis). Arch Intern Med. 1980;140(4):478-482.

9. Weetman AP. Grave’s disease 1835-2002. Horm Res. 2003;59(suppl 1):114-118.

10. Parry C. Collections From the Unpublished Medical Writings of the Late Caleb Hillier Parry. London, UK: Underwoods;1845:478.

11. Graves RJ. Clinical Lectures on the Practice of Medicine. Dublin, Ireland: Fannin and Co; 1864.

12. Von Basedow CA. Exophthalmos durch Hypertrophie des Zellgewebes in der Augenhohle. Wchenscher Heilkunde. 1840;6:197-202.

13. Zimmermann MB, Boelaert K. Iodine deficiency and thyroid disorders. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015;3(4):286-295.

14. Manji N, Carr-Smith JD, Boelaert K, et al. Influences of age, gender, smoking, and family history on autoimmune thyroid disease phenotype. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91(12):4873-4880.

15. Brix TH, Kyvik KO, Christensen K, Hegedüs L. Evidence for a major role of heredity in Graves’ disease: a population-based study of two Danish twin cohorts. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86(2):930-934.

16. Brand OJ, Gough SC. Genetics of thyroid autoimmunity and the role of the TSHR. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;322(1-2):135-143.

17. Chen QY, Huang W, She JX, Baxter F, Volpe R, Maclaren NK. HLA-DRB1*08, DRB1*03/DRB3*0101, and DRB3*0202 are susceptibility genes for Graves’ disease in North American Caucasians, whereas DRB1*07 is protective. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84(9):3182-3186.

18. Tomer Y. Mechanisms of autoimmune thyroid diseases: from genetics to epigenetics. Annu Rev Pathol. 2014;9:147-156.

19. Smith TJ, Hegedüs L. Graves’ disease [letter]. N Engl J Med. 2017;376(2):185.

20. Marinò M, Latrofa F, Menconi F, Chiovato L, Vitti P. Role of genetic and non-genetic factors in the etiology of Graves’ disease. J Endocrinol Invest. 2015;38(3):283-294.

21. Enzmann DR, Donaldson SS, Kriss JP. Appearance of Graves’ disease on orbital computed tomography. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1979;3(6):815-819.

22. Bartley GB, Fatourechi V, Kadrmas EF, et al. Clinical features of Graves’ ophthalmopathy in an incidence cohort. Am J Ophthalmol. 1996;121(3):284-290.

23. Fatourechi V. Thyroid dermopathy and acropachy. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;26(4):553-565.

24. Tozzoli R, Bagnasco M, Giavarina D, Bizzaro N. TSH receptor autoantibody immunoassay in patients with Graves’ disease: improvement of diagnostic accuracy over different generations of methods; systematic review and meta-analysis. Autoimmun Rev. 2012;12(2):107-113.

25. Pedersen IB, Knudsen N, Perrild H, Ovesen L, Laurberg P. TSH-receptor antibody measurement for differentiation of hyperthyroidism into Graves’ disease and multinodular toxic goitre: a comparison of two competitive binding assays. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2001;55(3):381-390.

26. Hiraiwa T, Tsujimoto N, Tanimoto K, Terasaki J, Amino N, Hanafusa T. Use of color Doppler ultrasonography to measure thyroid blood flow and differentiate Graves’ disease from painless thyroiditis. Eur Thyroid J. 2013;2(2):120-126.

27. Cooper DS, Daniels GH, Ladenson PW, Ridgway EC. Hyperthyroxinemia in patients treated with high-dose propranolol. Am J Med. 1982;73(6):867-871.

28. Williams DE, Chopra IJ, Orgiazzi J, Solomon DH. Acute effects of corticosteroids on thyroid activity in Graves’ disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1975;41(2):354-361.

29. Sundaresh V, Brito JP, Wang Z, et al. Comparative effectiveness of therapies for Graves’ hyperthyroidism: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98(9):3671-3677.

30. Andersen SL, Olsen J, Laurberg P. Antithyroid drug side effects in the population and in pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016;101(4):1606-1614.

31. Song R, Lin H, Chen Y, Zhang X, Feng W. Effects of methimazole and propylthiouracil exposure during pregnancy on the risk of neonatal congenital malformations: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2017;12(7):e0180108.

32. Abraham-Nordling M, Törring O, Hamberger B, et al. Graves’ disease: a long-term quality-of-life follow up of patients randomized to treatment with antithyroid drugs, radioiodine, or surgery. Thyroid. 2005;15(11):1279-1286.

33. Dobyns BM, Vickery AL, Maloof F, Chapman EM. Functional and histologic effects of therapeutic doses of radioactive iodine on the thyroid of man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1953;13(5):548-567.

34. Bartalena L, Burch HB, Burman KD, Kahaly GJ. A 2013 European survey of clinical practice patterns in the management of Graves’ disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2016;84(1):115-120.

35. Burch HB, Burman KD, Cooper DS. A 2011 survey of clinical practice patterns in the management of Graves’ disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97(12):4549-4558.

36. Brito JP, Schilz S, Singh Ospina N, et al. Antithyroid drugsdthe most common treatment for Graves’ disease in the United States: a nationwide population-based study [letter]. Thyroid. 2016;26(8):1144-1145.

37. Bahn RS, Burch HS, Cooper DS, et al. The role of propylthiouracil in the management of Graves’ disease in adults: report of a meeting jointly sponsored by the American Thyroid Association and the Food and Drug Administration. Thyroid. 2009;19(7):673-674.

38. Vaidya B, Wright A, Shuttleworth J, et al. Block & replace regime versus titration regime of antithyroid drugs for the treatment of Graves’ disease: a retrospective observational study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2014;81(4):610-613.

39. Nakamura H, Noh JY, Itoh K, Fukata S, Miyauchi A, Hamada N. Comparison of methimazole and propylthiouracil in patients with hyperthyroidism caused by Graves’ disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92(6):2157-2162.

40. Klein I, Becker DV, Levey GS. Treatment of hyperthyroid disease. Ann Intern Med. 1994;121(4):281-288.

41. Sundaresh V, Brito JP, Thapa P, Bahn RS, Stan MN. Comparative effectiveness of treatment choices for Graves’ hyperthyroidism: a historical cohort study. Thyroid. 2017;27(4):497-505.

42. Mazza E, Carlini M, Flecchia D, et al. Long-term follow-up of patients with hyperthyroidism due to Graves’ disease treated with methimazole: comparison of usual treatment schedule with drug discontinuation vs continuous treatment with low methimazole doses; a retrospective study. J Endocrinol Invest. 2008;31(10):866-872.

43. Abraham P, Avenell A, McGeoch SC, Clark LF, Bevan JS. Antithyroid drug regimen for treating Graves’ hyperthyroidism. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(1):CD003420.

44. Kimball LE, Kulinskaya E, Brown B, Johnston C, Farid NR. Does smoking increase relapse rates in Graves’ disease? J Endocrinol Invest. 2002;25(2):152-157.

45. Allahabadia A, Daykin J, Holder RL, Sheppard MC, Gough SC, Franklyn JA. Age and gender predict the outcome of treatment for Graves’ hyperthyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85(3):1038-1042.

46. Carella C, Mazziotti G, Sorvillo F, et al. Serum thyrotropin receptor antibodies concentrations in patients with Graves’ disease before, at the end of methimazole treatment, and after drug withdrawal: evidence that the activity of thyrotropin receptor antibody and/or thyroid response modify during the observation period. Thyroid. 2006;16(3):295-302.

47. Otsuka F, Noh JY, Chino T, et al. Hepatotoxicity and cutaneous reactions after antithyroid drug administration. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2012;77(2):310-315.

48. Wang M-T, Lee W-J, Huang T-Y, Chu C-L, Hsieh C-H. Antithyroid drug-related hepatotoxicity in hyperthyroidism patients: a population-based cohort study. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2014;78(3):619-629.

49. Azizi F, Malboosbaf R. Long-term antithyroid drug treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Thyroid. 2017;27(10):1223-1231.

50. Villagelin D, Romaldini JH, Santos RB, Milkos AB, Ward LS. Outcomes in relapsed Graves’ disease patients following radioiodine or prolonged low dose of methimazole treatment. Thyroid. 2015;25(12):1282-1290.

51. Laurberg P, Berman DC, Andersen S, Bülow Pedersen I. Sustained control of Graves’ hyperthyroidism during long-term low-dose antithyroid drug therapy of patients with severe Graves’ orbitopathy. Thyroid. 2011;21(9):951-956.

52. Elbers L, Mourits M, Wiersinga W. Outcome of very longterm treatment with antithyroid drugs in Graves’ hyperthyroidism associated with Graves’ orbitopathy. Thyroid. 2011;21(3):279-283.

53. Langley RW, Burch HB. Perioperative management of the thyrotoxic patient. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2003;32(2):519-534.

54. Oltmann SC, Brekke AV, Schneider DF, Schaefer SC, Chen H, Sippel RS. Preventing postoperative hypocalcemia in patients with Graves disease: a prospective study. Ann Surg Oncol. 2015;22(3):952-958.

55. Sosa JA, Bowman HM, Tielsch JM, Powe NR, Gordon TA, Udelsman R. The importance of surgeon experience for clinical and economic outcomes from thyroidectomy. Ann Surg. 1998;228(3):320-330.

56. Seo GH, Kim TH, Chung JH. Antithyroid drugs and congenital malformations: a nationwide Korean cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2018;168(6):405-413.

57. Alexander EK, Pearce EN, Brent GA, et al. 2017 Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease during pregnancy and the postpartum [published correction appears in Thyroid. 2017;27(9):1212]. Thyroid. 2017;27(3):315-389.

58. Andersen SL, Olsen J, Wu CS, Laurberg P. Severity of birth defects after propylthiouracil exposure in early pregnancy. Thyroid. 2014;24(10):1533-1540.

59. Führer D, Holzapfel HP, Wonerow P, Scherbaum WA, Paschke R. Somatic mutations in the thyrotropin receptor gene and not in the Gsa protein gene in 31 toxic thyroid nodules. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997;82(11):3885-3891.

60. Holzapfel HP, Führer D, Wonerow P, Weinland G, Scherbaum WA, Paschke R. Identification of constitutively activating somatic thyrotropin receptor mutations in a subset of toxic multinodular goiters. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997;82(12):4229-4233.

61. Parma J, Duprez L, Van Sande J, et al. Diversity and prevalence of somatic mutations in the thyrotropin receptor and Gsa genes as a cause of toxic thyroid adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997;82(8):2695-2701.

62. Laurberg P, Pedersen KM, Vestergaard H, Sigurdsson G. High incidence of multinodular toxic goitre in the elderly population in a low iodine intake area vs. high incidence of Graves’ disease in the young in a high iodine intake area: comparative surveys of thyrotoxicosis epidemiology in East-Jutland Denmark and Iceland. J Intern Med. 1991;229(5):415-420.

63. Bogazzi F, Bartalena L, Dell’Unto E, et al. Proportion of type 1 and type 2 amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis has changed over a 27-year period in Italy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007;67(4):533-537.

64. Vidal-Trecan GM, Stahl JE, Durand-Zaleski I. Managing toxic thyroid adenoma: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Eur J Endocrinol. 2002;146(3):283-294.

65. Vidal-Trecan GM, Stahl JE, Eckman MH. Radioiodine or surgery for toxic thyroid adenoma: dissecting an important decision; a cost-effectiveness analysis. Thyroid. 2004;14(11):933-945.

66. Verloop H, Louwerens M, Schoones JW, Kievit J, Smit JW, Dekkers OM. Risk of hypothyroidism following hemithyroidectomy:systematic review and meta-analysis of prognostic studies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97(7):2243-2255.

67. Ahn D, Sohn JH, Jeon JH. Hypothyroidism following hemithyroidectomy: incidence, risk factors, and clinical characteristics. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016;101(4):1429-1436.

68. Ceccarelli C, Bencivelli W, Vitti P, Grasso L, Pinchera A. Outcome of radioiodine-131 therapy in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules: a 20 years’ retrospective study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005;62(3):331-335.

69. Nygaard B, Hegedüs L, Nielsen KG, Ulriksen P, Hansen JM. Long-term effect of radioactive iodine on thyroid function and size in patients with solitary autonomously functioning toxic thyroid nodules. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1999;50(2):197-202.

70. Erickson D, Gharib H, Li H, van Heerden JA. Treatment of patients with toxic multinodular goiter. Thyroid. 1998;8(4):277-282.

71. Kang AS, Grant CS, Thompson GB, van Heerden JA. Current treatment of nodular goiter with hyperthyroidism (Plummer’s disease): surgery versus radioiodine. Surgery. 2002;132(6):916-923.

72. Yano Y, Sugino K, Akaishi J, et al. Treatment of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules at a single institution: radioiodine therapy, surgery, and ethanol injection therapy. Ann Nucl Med. 2011;25(10):749-754.

73. Ha EJ, Baek JH, Kim KW, et al. Comparative efficacy of radiofrequency and laser ablation for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules: systematic review including traditional pooling and Bayesian network meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100(5):1903-1911.

74. Goldschlager N, Epstein AE, Naccarelli GV, et al. A practical guide for clinicians who treat patients with amiodarone: 2007 [published correction appears in Heart Rhythm. 2007;4(12):1590]. Heart Rhythm. 2007;4(9):1250-1259.

75. Kennedy RL, Griffiths H, Gray TA. Amiodarone and the thyroid. Clin Chem. 1989;35(9):1882-1887.

76. Latini R, Tognoni G, Kates RE. Clinical pharmacokinetics of amiodarone. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1984;9(2):136-156.

77. Rao RH, McCready VR, Spathis GS. Iodine kinetic studies during amiodarone treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986;62(3):563-568.

78. Franklyn JA, Davis JR, Gammage MD, Littler WA, Ramsden DB, Sheppard MC. Amiodarone and thyroid hormone action. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1985;22(3):257-264.

79. Roti E, Minelli R, Gardini E, Bianconi L, Braverman LE. Thyrotoxicosis followed by hypothyroidism in patients treated with amiodarone: a possible consequence of a destructive process in the thyroid. Arch Intern Med. 1993;153(7):886-892.

80. Braverman LE, Ingbar SH, Vagenakis AG, Adams L, Maloof F. Enhanced susceptibility to iodide myxedema in patients with Hashimoto’s disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1971;32(4):515-521.

81. Stanbury JB, Ermans AE, Bourdoux P, et al. Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism: occurrence and epidemiology. Thyroid. 1998;8(1):83-100.

82. Martino E, Safran M, Aghini-Lombardi F, et al. Environmental iodine intake and thyroid dysfunction during chronic amiodarone therapy. Ann Intern Med. 1984;101(1):28-34.

83. Bogazzi F, Bartalena L, Martino E. Approach to the patient with amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95(6):2529-2535.

84. Tomisti L, Rossi G, Bartalena L, Martino E, Bogazzi F. The onset time of amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) depends on AIT type. Eur J Endocrinol. 2014;171(3):363-368.

85. Bartalena L, Brogioni S, Grasso L, Bogazzi F, Burelli A, Martino E. Treatment of amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis, a difficult challenge: results of a prospective study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996;81(8):2930-2933.

86. Bartalena L, Grasso L, Brogioni S, Aghini-Lombardi F, Braverman LE, Martino E. Serum interleukin-6 in amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994;78(2):423-427.

87. Bogazzi F, Martino E, Dell’Unto E, et al. Thyroid color flow doppler sonography and radioiodine uptake in 55 consecutive patients with amiodarone-induc

88. Wang J, Zhang R. Evaluation of 99mTc-MIBI in thyroid gland imaging for the diagnosis of amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis. Br J Radiol. 2017;90(1071):20160836.

89. Piga M, Cocco MC, Serra A, Boi F, Loy M, Mariotti S. The usefulness of 99mTc-sestaMIBI thyroid scan in the differential diagnosis and management of amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008;159(4):423-429.

90. Tomisti L, Materazzi G, Bartalena L, et al. Total thyroidectomy in patients with amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis and severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97(10):3515-3521.

91. Houghton SG, Farley DR, Brennan MD, van Heerden JA, Thompson GB, Grant CS. Surgical management of amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis: Mayo Clinic experience. World J Surg. 2004;28(11):1083-1087.

92. Tjörnstrand A, Gunnarsson K, Evert M, et al. The incidence rate of pituitary adenomas in western Sweden for the period 2001-2011. Eur J Endocrinol. 2014;171(4):519-526.

93. Raappana A, Koivukangas J, Ebeling T, Pirilä T. Incidence of pituitary adenomas in Northern Finland in 1992-2007. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95(9):4268-4275.

94. Amlashi FG, Tritos NA. Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas: epidemiology, diagnosis, and management. Endocrine. 2016;52(3):427-440.

95. Tjörnstrand A, Nyström HF. DIAGNOSIS OF ENDOCRINE

DISEASE: Diagnostic approach to TSH-producing pituitary adenoma. Eur J Endocrinol. 2017;177(4):R183-R197.

96. Yamada S, Fukuhara N, Horiguchi K, et al. Clinicopathological characteristics and therapeutic outcomes in thyrotropinsecreting pituitary adenomas: a single-center study of 90 cases. J Neurosurg. 2014;121(6):1462-1473.

97. Yoshihara A, Isozaki O, Hizuka N, et al. Expression of type 5 somatostatin receptor in TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas: a possible marker for predicting long-term response to octreotide therapy. Endocr J. 2007;54(1):133-138.

98. Caron P, Arlot S, Bauters C, et al. Efficacy of the long-acting octreotide formulation (octreotide-LAR) in patients with thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86(6):2849-2853.

99. Kuhn JM, Arlot S, Lefebvre H, et al. Evaluation of the treatment of thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas with a slow release formulation of the somatostatin analog lanreotide. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85(4):1487-1491.

100. Brucker-Davis F, Oldfield EH, Skarulis MC, Doppman JL, Weintraub BD. Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary tumors: diagnostic criteria, thyroid hormone sensitivity, and treatment outcome in 25 patients followed at the National Institutes of Health. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84(2):476-486.

101. Malchiodi E, Profka E, Ferrante E, et al. Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas: outcome of pituitary surgery and irradiation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99(6):2069-2076.

102. Walkington L, Webster J, Hancock BW, Everard J, Coleman RE. Hyperthyroidism and human chorionic gonadotrophin production in gestational trophoblastic disease. Br J Cancer. 2011;104(11):1665-1669.

103. Oosting SF, de Haas EC, Links TP, et al. Prevalence of paraneoplastic hyperthyroidism in patients with metastatic non-seminomatous germ-cell tumors. Ann Oncol. 2010;21(1):104-108.

104. Karimifar M. A case of functional metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma that presented with hip fracture and hypercalcemia. Adv Biomed Res. 2018;7:92.

105. Aoyama M, Takizawa H, Tsuboi M, Nakagawa Y, Tangoku A. A case of metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma complicated with Graves’ disease after total thyroidectomy. Endocr J. 2017;64(12):1143-1147.

106. Danilovic DL, de Camargo RY, Castro G Jr, Papadia C,Marui S, Hoff AO. Rapid control of T3 thyrotoxicosis in patients with metastatic follicular thyroid cancer treated with lenvatinib [letter]. Thyroid. 2015;25(11):1262-1264.

107. Nishihara E, Amino N, Miyauchi A. Fractionated radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism caused by widespread metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma [letter]. Thyroid. 2010;20(5):569-570.

108. Azevedo MF, Casulari LA. Hyperfunctioning thyroid cancer: a five-year follow-up. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2010;54(1):78-80.

109. Miyauchi A, Takamura Y, Ito Y, et al. 3,5,3’-Triiodothyronine thyrotoxicosis due to increased conversion of administered levothyroxine in patients with massive metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(6):2239-2242.

110. Kasagi K, Takeuchi R, Miyamoto S, et al. Metastatic thyroid cancer presenting as thyrotoxicosis: report of three cases. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1994;40(3):429-434.

111. Ayhan A, Yanik F, Tuncer R, Tuncer ZS, Ruacan S. Struma ovarii. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1993;42(2):143-146.

112. DeSimone CP, Lele SM, Modesitt SC. Malignant struma ovarii: a case report and analysis of cases reported in the literature with focus on survival and I131 therapy. Gynecol Oncol. 2003;89(3):543-548.

113. Ross DS. Syndromes of thyrotoxicosis with low radioactive iodine uptake. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1998;27(1):169-185.

114. Pearce EN, Farwell AP, Braverman LE. Thyroiditis [published correction appears in N Engl J Med. 2003;349(6):620]. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(26):2646-2655.

115. Nikolai TF, Coombs GJ, McKenzie AK. Lymphocytic thyroiditis with spontaneously resolving hyperthyroidism and subacute thyroiditis: long-term follow-up. Arch Intern Med. 1981;141(11):1455-1458.

116. Muller AF, Drexhage HA, Berghout A. Postpartum thyroiditis and autoimmune thyroiditis in women of childbearing age: recent insights and consequences for antenatal and postnatal care. Endocr Rev. 2001;22(5):605-630.

117. Mizukami Y, Michigishi T, Nonomura A, et al. Postpartum thyroiditis: a clinical, histologic, and immunopathologic study of 15 cases. Am J Clin Pathol. 1993;100(3):200-205.

118. Lazarus JH, Ammari F, Oretti R, Parkes AB, Richards CJ, Harris B. Clinical aspects of recurrent postpartum thyroiditis. Br J Gen Pract. 1997;47(418):305-308.

119. Premawardhana LD, Parkes AB, Ammari F, et al. Postpartum thyroiditis and long-term thyroid status: prognostic influence of thyroid peroxidase antibodies and ultrasound echogenicity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85(1):71-75.

120. Browne-Martin K, Emerson CH. Postpartum thyroid dysfunction. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1997;40(1):90-101.

121. Negro R, Greco G, Mangieri T, Pezzarossa A, Dazzi D, Hassan H. The influence of selenium supplementation on postpartum thyroid status in pregnant women with thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92(4):1263-1268.

122. Ahmadieh H, Salti I. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors induced thyroid dysfunction: a review of its incidence, pathophysiology,clinical relevance, and treatment. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:725410.

123. Tamaskar I, Bukowski R, Elson P, et al. Thyroid function test abnormalities in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with sorafenib. Ann Oncol. 2008;19(2):265-268.

124. Desai J, Yassa L, Marqusee E, et al. Hypothyroidism after sunitinib treatment for patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Ann Intern Med. 2006;145(9):660-664.

125. Morganstein DL, Lai Z, Spain L, et al. Thyroid abnormalities following the use of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 and programmed death receptor protein-1 inhibitors in the treatment of melanoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2017;86(4):614-620.

126. de Filette J, Jansen Y, Schreuer M, et al. Incidence of thyroidrelated adverse events in melanoma patients treated with pembrolizumab. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 016; 101(11):4431-4439.



Usted debe ingresar al sitio con su cuenta de usuario IntraMed para ver los comentarios de sus colegas o para expresar su opinión. Si ya tiene una cuenta IntraMed o desea registrase, ingrese aquí

Contenidos relacionados
Los editores le recomiendan continuar con las siguientes lecturas: