Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Baeyens JP, Bauer JM, et al. Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis: report of the European working group on sarcopenia in older people. Age Ageing. 2010; 39:412–423.
 Studenski SA, Peters KW, Alley DE, et al. The FNIH sarcopenia project: rationale, study description, conference recommendations, and final estimates. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014; 69:547–558.
 Aubrey J, Esfandiari N, Baracos VE, et al. Measurement of skeletal muscle radiation attenuation and basis of its biological variation. Acta Physiol. 2014; 210:489–497.
 Cawthon PM. Assessment of lean mass and physical performance in sarcopenia. J Clin Densitom. 2015; 18:467–471.
 Heymsfield SB, Gonzalez MC, Lu J, et al. Skeletal muscle mass and quality: evolution of modern measurement concepts in the context of sarcopenia. Proc Nutr Soc. 2015; 74:355–366.
 Prado CM, Pinto CM, Gonzalez MC, et al. Techniques for Assessment of Body Composition in Health. Scientific American Nutrition. Hamilton, Ontario, Canada: Decker Intellectual Properties; 2017.
 Koukourikos K, Tsaloglidou A, Kourkouta L. Muscle atrophy in intensive care unit patients. Acta Inform Med. 2014; 22:406–410.
 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Inpatient vs. Outpatient Surgeries in U.S. Hospitals Rockville, MD, USA March 2015. [cited 2018 Aug 24]. Available from: www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/infographics/inpt_outpt.jsp.
 Bisgaard T, Kehlet H. Early oral feeding after elective abdominal surgery—what are the issues? Nutrition. 2002; 18:944–948.
 Gani F, Buettner S, Margonis GA, et al. Sarcopenia predicts costs among patients undergoing major abdominal operations. Surgery. 2016; 160:1162–1171.
 Englesbe MJ, Lee JS, He K, et al. Analytic morphomics, core muscle size, and surgical outcomes. Ann Surg. 2012; 256:255–261.
 Lieffers JR, Bathe OF, Fassbender K, et al. Sarcopenia is associated with postoperative infection and delayed recovery from colorectal cancer resection surgery. Br J Cancer. 2012; 107:931–936.
 Joglekar S, Nau PN, Mezhir JJ. The impact of sarcopenia on survival and complications in surgical sncology: A review of the current literature. J Surg Oncol. 2015; 112:503–509.
 Friedman J, Lussiez A, Sullivan J, et al. Implications of sarcopenia in major surgery. Nutr Clin Pract. 2015; 30:175–179.
 Hale AL, Twomey K, Ewing JA, et al. Impact of sarcopenia on long-term mortality following endovascular aneurysm repair. Vasc Med. 2016; 21:217–222.
 Higashi T, Hayashi H, Taki K, et al. Sarcopenia, but not visceral fat amount, is a risk factor of postoperative complications after major hepatectomy. Int J Clin Oncol. 2016; 21:310–319.
 Lee S, Paik HC, Haam SJ, et al. Sarcopenia of thoracic muscle mass is not a risk factor for survival in lung transplant recipients. J Thorac Dis. 2016; 8:2011–2017.
 Fukushima H, Nakanishi Y, Kataoka M, et al. Postoperative changes in skeletal muscle mass predict survival of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma undergoing cytoreductive nephrectomy. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2017;15:e229–e238.
 Hervochon R, Bobbio A, Guinet C, et al. Body mass index and total psoas area affect outcomes in patients undergoing pneumonectomy for cancer. Ann Thorac Surg. 2017; 103:287–295.
 Hirasawa Y, Nakashima J, Yunaiyama D, et al. Sarcopenia as a novel preoperative prognostic predictor for survival in patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2016; 23:1048–1054.
 Huang DD, Chen XX, Chen XY, et al. Sarcopenia predicts 1-year mortality in elderly patients undergoing curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer: a prospective study. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2016; 142: 2347–2356.
 Ishihara H, Kondo T, Omae K, et al. Sarcopenia predicts survival outcomes among patients with urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract undergoing radical nephroureterectomy: a retrospective multiinstitution study. Int J Clin Oncol. 2017; 22:136–144.
 Itoh S, Yoshizumi T, Kimura K, et al. Effect of Sarcopenic Obesity on Outcomes of Living-Donor Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Anticancer Res. 2016; 36:3029– 3034.
 Malietzis G, Currie AC, Athanasiou T, et al. Influence of body composition profile on outcomes following colorectal cancer surgery. Br J Surg. 2016; 103:572–580.
 Okumura S, Kaido T, Hamaguchi Y, et al. Impact of skeletal muscle mass, muscle quality, and visceral adiposity on outcomes following resection of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 2017; 24:1037–1045.
 Paireder M, Asari R, Kristo I, et al. Impact of sarcopenia on outcome in patients with esophageal resection following neoadjuvant chemotherapy for esophageal cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2017; 43:478–484.
 Psutka SP, Boorjian SA, Moynagh MR, et al. Decreased skeletal muscle mass is associated with an increased risk of mortality after radical nephrectomy for localized renal cell cancer. J Urol. 2016; 195:270–276.
 Suzuki Y, Okamoto T, Fujishita T, et al. Clinical implications of sarcopenia in patients undergoing complete resection for early non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2016; 101:92–97.
 van Dijk DP, Bakens MJ, Coolsen MM, et al. Low skeletal muscle radiation attenuation and visceral adiposity are associated with overall survival and surgical site infections in patients with pancreatic cancer. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2017; 8:317–326.
 Drudi LM, Phung K, Ades M, et al. Psoas muscle area predicts all-cause mortality after endovascular and open aortic aneurysm repair. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2016; 52:764–769.
 Mok M, Allende R, Leipsic J, et al. Prognostic value of fat mass and skeletal muscle mass determined by computed tomography in patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Am J Cardiol.2016; 117:828–833.
 Paknikar R, Friedman J, Cron D, et al. Psoas muscle size as a frailty measure for open and transcatheter aortic valve replacement. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2016; 151:745–750.
 Saji M, Lim DS, Ragosta M, et al. Usefulness of psoas muscle area to predict mortality in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Am J Cardiol. 2016; 118:251–257.
 Bokshan SL, Han AL, DePasse JM, et al. Effect of sarcopenia on postoperative morbidity and mortality after thoracolumbar spine surgery. Orthopedics. 2016; 39:e1159–e1e64.
 Hamaguchi Y, Kaido T, Okumura S, et al. Impact of skeletal muscle mass index, intramuscular adipose tissue content, and visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue area ratio on early mortality of living donor liver transplantation. Transplantation. 2017; 101:565.
 Izumi T, Watanabe J, Tohyama T, et al. Impact of psoas muscle index on short-term outcome after living donor liver transplantation. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2016; 27:382–388.
 Rutten IJ, Ubachs J, Kruitwagen RF, et al. The influence of sarcopenia on survival and surgical complications in ovarian cancer patients undergoing primary debulking surgery. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2017; 43:717–724.
 Boer BC, de Graaff F, Brusse-Keizer M, et al. Skeletal muscle mass and quality as risk factors for postoperative outcome after open colon resection for cancer. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2016; 31:1117–1124.
 Peyton CC, Heavner MG, Rague JT, et al. Does sarcopenia impact complications and overall survival in patients undergoing radical nephrectomy for stage III and IV kidney cancer? J Endourol. 2016; 30:229–236.
 Van Rijssen LB, van Huijgevoort NC, Coelen RJ, et al. Skeletal muscle quality is associated with worse survival after pancreatoduodenectomy for periampullary, nonpancreatic cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2017;24:272–280.
 Grotenhuis BA, Shapiro J, van Adrichem S, et al. Sarcopenia/muscle mass is not a prognostic factor for short- and long-term outcome after esophagectomy for cancer. World J Surg. 2016;40:2698–2704.
 Heberton GA, Nassif M, Bierhals A, et al. Usefulness of psoas muscle area determined by computed tomography to predict mortality or prolonged length of hospital stay in patients undergoing left ventricular assist device implantation. Am J Cardiol. 2016;118:1363–1367.
 Chemama S, Bayar MA, Lanoy E, et al. Sarcopenia is associated with chemotherapy toxicity in patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2016;23:3891–3898.
 Lou N, Chi CH, Chen XD, et al. Sarcopenia in overweight and obese patients is a predictive factor for postoperative complication in gastric cancer: a prospective study. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2017;43:188–195.
 Makiura D, Ono R, Inoue J, et al. Preoperative sarcopenia is a predictor of postoperative pulmonary complications in esophageal cancer following esophagectomy: a retrospective cohort study. J Geriatr Oncol. 2016;7:430–436.
 Nishigori T, Okabe H, Tanaka E, et al. Sarcopenia as a predictor of pulmonary complications after esophagectomy for thoracic esophageal cancer. J Surg Oncol. 2016;113:678–684.
 Wang SL, Zhuang CL, Huang DD, et al. Sarcopenia adversely impacts postoperative clinical outcomes following gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer: a prospective study. Ann Surg Oncol. 2016;23:556–564.
 Lindqvist C, Majeed A, Wahlin S. Body composition assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry predicts early infectious complications after liver transplantation. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2017;30:284–291.
 Dahya V, Xiao J, Prado CM, et al. Computed tomography-derived skeletal muscle index: A novel predictor of frailty and hospital length of stay after transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Am Heart J. 2016;182:21–27.
 Garg L, Agrawal S, Pew T, et al. Psoas muscle area as a predictor of outcomes in transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Am J Cardiol. 2017;119:457–460.
 Fujikawa H, Araki T, Okita Y, et al. Impact of sarcopenia on surgical site infection after restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis. Surg Today. 2017;47:92–98.
 Nardelli S, Lattanzi B, Torrisi S, et al. Sarcopenia is risk factor for development of hepatic encephalopathy after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;15:934–936.
 Nishida Y, Kato Y, Kudo M, et al. Preoperative sarcopenia strongly influences the risk of postoperative pancreatic fistula formation after pancreaticoduodenectomy. J Gastrointest Surg. 2016;20:1586–1594.
 Kalafateli M, Mantzoukis K, Choi Yau Y, et al. Malnutrition and sarcopenia predict post-liver transplantation outcomes independently of the model for end-stage liver disease score. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2017;8:113–121.
 Tsaousi G, Kokkota S, Papakostas P, et al. Body composition analysis for discrimination of prolonged hospital stay in colorectal cancer surgery patients. Eur J Cancer Care. 2017;26:e12491.
 Onesti JK, Wright GP, Kenning SE, et al. Sarcopenia and survival in patients undergoing pancreatic resection. Pancreatol. 2016;16:284–289.
 Weig T, Milger K, Langhans B, et al. Core muscle size predicts postoperative outcome in lung transplant candidates. Ann Thorac Surg. 2016;101:1318–1325.
 Harada K, Ida S, Baba Y, et al. Prognostic and clinical impact of sarcopenia in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Dis Esophagus. 2016;29:627–633.
 Jo S, Park SB, Kim MJ, et al. Comparison of balance, proprioception and skeletal muscle mass in total hip replacement patients with and without fracture: a pilot study. Ann Rehabil Med. 2016;40:1064–1070.
 Reisinger KW, Derikx JP, van Vugt JL, et al. Sarcopenia is associated with an increased inflammatory response to surgery in colorectal cancer. Clin Nutr. 2016;35:924–927.  Sousa AS, Guerra RS, Fonseca I, et al. Financial impact of sarcopenia on hospitalization costs. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016;70:1046–1051.
 van Vugt JLA, Buettner S, Levolger S, et al. Low skeletal muscle mass is associated with increased hospital expenditure in patients undergoing cancer surgery of the alimentary tract. PLoS One.2017;12:e0186547.
 Aahlin EK, Trano G, Johns N, et al. Health-related quality of life, cachexia and overall survival after major upper abdominal surgery: a prospective cohort study. Scand J Surg. 2017;106:40–46.
 Bui AL, Horwich TB, Fonarow GC. Epidemiology and risk profile of heart failure. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2011;8:30–41.
 Fulster S, Tacke M, Sandek A, et al. Muscle wasting in patients with chronic heart failure: results from the studies investigating co-morbidities aggravating heart failure (SICA-HF). Eur Heart J. 2013;34:512–519.
 Uematsu M, Akashi YJ, Ashikaga K, et al. Association between heart rate at rest and myocardial perfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing cardiac rehabilitation - a pilot study. Aoms.2012;4:622–630.
 Matsubara Y, Matsumoto T, Inoue K, et al. Sarcopenia is a risk factor for cardiovascular events experienced by patients with critical limb ischemia. J Vasc Surg. 2017;65:1390–1397.
 Bekfani T, Pellicori P, Morris DA, et al. Sarcopenia in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: Impact on muscle strength, exercise capacity and quality of life. Int J Cardiol. 2016;222:41–46.
 Zuckerman J, Ades M, Mullie L, et al. Psoas muscle area and length of stay in older adults undergoing cardiac operations. Ann Thorac Surg. 2017;103:1498–1504.
 Fouque D, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Kopple J, et al. A proposed nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for protein-energy wasting in acute and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2008;73:391–398.
 Isoyama N, Qureshi AR, Avesani CM, et al. Comparative associations of muscle mass and muscle strength with mortality in dialysis patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;9:1720–1728.
 Hsiao SM, Tsai YC, Chen HM, et al. Association of fluid status and body composition with physical function in patients with chronic kidney disease. PLoS One. 2016;11:e0165400.
 Segura-Orti E, Gordon PL, Doyle JW, et al. Correlates of physical functioning and performance across the spectrum of kidney function. Clin Nurs Res. 2018;27:579–596.
 Barros A, Costa BE, Mottin CC, et al. Depression, quality of life, and body composition in patients with end-stage renal disease: a cohort study. Ver Bras Psiquiatr. 2016;38:301–306.
 Locke JE, Carr JJ, Nair S, et al. Abdominal lean muscle is associated with lower mortality among kidney waitlist candidates. Clin Transplant. 2017;31:e12911.
 Malhotra R, Deger SM, Salat H, et al. Sarcopenic obesity definitions by body composition and mortality in the hemodialysis patients. J Ren Nutr. 2017;27:84–90.
 Schols AM, Ferreira IM, Franssen FM, et al. Nutritional assessment and therapy in COPD: a European Respiratory Society statement. Eur Respir J. 2014;44:1504–1520.
 Slinde F, EllegÅRd L, Gr€ONberg AM, et al. Total energy expenditure in underweight patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease living at home. Clin Nutr. 2003;22:159–165.
 Baarends EM, Schols AM, Westerterp KR, et al. Total daily energy expenditure relative to resting energy expenditure in clinically stable patients with COPD. Thorax. 1997;52:780–785.
 Vestbo J, Prescott E, Almdal T, et al. Body mass, fatfree body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample: findings from the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;173:79–83.
 Schols AM, Soeters PB, Dingemans AM, et al. Prevalence and characteristics of nutritional depletion in patients with stable COPD eligible for pulmonary rehabilitation. Am Rev Respir Dis.1993;147:1151–1156.
 Joppa P, Tkacova R, Franssen FM, et al. Sarcopenic obesity, functional outcomes, and systemic inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2016;17:712–718.
 Pothirat C, Chaiwong W, Phetsuk N, et al. The relationship between body composition and clinical parameters in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Med Assoc Thai. 2016;99:386–393.
 Hwang JA, Kim YS, Leem AY, et al. Clinical implications of sarcopenia on decreased bone density in men with COPD. Chest. 2017;151:1018–1027.
 Society of Critical Care Medicine. Critical Care Patients. Mount Prospect, IL; 2016 [cited 2018 Aug 24].
 Preiser J-C, van Zanten ARH, Berger MM, et al. Metabolic and nutritional support of critically ill patients: consensus and controversies. Crit Care. 2015;19:35.
 Weijs PJ, Looijaard WG, Dekker IM, et al. Low skeletal muscle area is a risk factor for mortality in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients. Crit Care.2014;18:R12.
 Moisey LL, Mourtzakis M, Cotton BA, et al. Skeletal muscle predicts ventilator-free days, ICU-free days, and mortality in elderly ICU patients. Crit Care. 2013;17:R206.
 McClave SA, Taylor BE, Martindale RG, et al. Guidelines for the provision and assessment of nutrition support therapy in the adult critically ill patient: society of critical care medicine (SCCM) and American society for parenteral and enteral nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.). Jpen J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2016;40: 159–211.
 Akahoshi T, Yasuda M, Momii K, et al. Sarcopenia is a predictive factor for prolonged intensive care unit stays in high-energy blunt trauma patients. Acute Med Surg. 2016;3:326–331.
 Thibault R, Makhlouf AM, Mulliez A, et al. Fat-free mass at admission predicts 28-day mortality in intensive care unit patients: the international prospective observational study phase angle project. Intensive Care Med. 2016;42:1445–1453.
 Dirks RC, Edwards BL, Tong E, et al. Sarcopenia in emergency abdominal surgery. J Surg Res. 2017;207:13–21.
 Leeper CM, Lin E, Hoffman M, et al. Computed tomography abbreviated assessment of sarcopenia following trauma: the CAAST measurement predicts 6-month mortality in older adult trauma patients. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2016;80:805–811.
 Looijaard WG, Dekker IM, Stapel SN, et al. Skeletal muscle quality as assessed by CT-derived skeletal muscle density is associated with 6-month mortality in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients. Crit Care. 2016;20:386.
 Shibahashi K, Sugiyama K, Kashiura M, et al. Decreasing skeletal muscle as a risk factor for mortality in elderly patients with sepsis: a retrospective cohort study. J Intensive Care. 2017;5:8
 Wallace JD, Calvo RY, Lewis PR, et al. Sarcopenia as a predictor of mortality in elderly blunt trauma patients: Comparing the masseter to the psoas using computed tomography. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017;82:65–72.
 Rutten IJG, Ubachs J, Kruitwagen RFPM, et al. Psoas muscle area is not representative of total skeletal muscle area in the assessment of sarcopenia in ovarian cancer. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2017;8:630–638.
 Sousa AS, Guerra RS, Fonseca I, et al. Sarcopenia and length of hospital stay. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016;70:595–601.
 Shintakuya R, Uemura K, Murakami Y, et al. Sarcopenia is closely associated with pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in patients with pancreatic disease. Pancreatology. 2017;17:70–75.
 Maeda K, Akagi J. Sarcopenia is an independent risk factor of dysphagia in hospitalized older people. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2016;16:515–521.
 Maeda K, Takaki M, Akagi J. Decreased skeletal muscle mass and risk factors of sarcopenic dysphagia: A prospective observational cohort study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2016;72:1290–1294.
 Rinaldi JM, Geletzke AK, Phillips BE, et al. Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in patients with complex abdominal wall hernias. Am J Surg. 2016;212:903–911.
 Maeda K, Akagi J. Muscle mass loss is a potential predictor of 90-day mortality in older adults with aspiration pneumonia. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2017;65:e18–e22.
 Perez-Zepeda MU, Sgaravatti A, Dent E. Sarcopenia and post-hospital outcomes in older adults: a longitudinal study. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2017;69:105–109.
 Fearon K, Arends J, Baracos V. Understanding the mechanisms and treatment options in cancer cachexia. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2013;10:90–99.
 Purcell SA, Elliott SA, Baracos VE, et al. Key determinants of energy expenditure in cancer and implications for clinical practice. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016;70:1230–1238.
 Prado CM, Lieffers JR, McCargar LJ, et al. Prevalence and clinical implications of sarcopenic obesity in patients with solid tumours of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts: a population-based study. Lancet Oncol. 2008;9:629–635.
 Wallengren O, Lundholm K, Bosaeus I. Diagnostic criteria of cancer cachexia: relation to quality of life, exercise capacity and survival in unselected palliative care patients. Support Care Cancer. 2013;21:1569–1577.
 Prado CMM, Mourtzakis M, Baracos V, et al. Overweight and obese patients with solid tumors may have sarcopenia, poor prognosis and early features of cachexia. Int J Body Compos Res. 2010;8:7–15.
 Prado CM, Cushen SJ, Orsso CE, et al. Sarcopenia and cachexia in the era of obesity: clinical and nutritional Impact. Proc Nutr Soc. 2016;75:188–198.
 Shen W, Punyanitya M, Wang Z, et al. Total body skeletal muscle and adipose tissue volumes: estimation from a single abdominal cross-sectional image. J Appl Physiol. 2004;97:2333–2338.
 Xiao J, Caan BJ, Weltzien E, et al. Associations of pre-existing co-morbidities with skeletal muscle mass and radiodensity in patients with non-metastatic colorectal cancer. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2018;9:654–663.
 Daly L, Prado CM, Ryan A. A window beneath the skin: how computed tomography assessment of body composition can assist in the identification of hidden wasting conditions in oncology that profoundly impact outcomes. Proc Nutr Soc. 2018;77:135–151.
Para ver los comentarios de sus colegas o para expresar su opinión debe ingresar con su cuenta de IntraMed.