Modifican el pronóstico | 18 FEB 18

Infecciones por bacterias multirresistentes en la cirrosis

En pacientes cirróticos, las infecciones bacterianas pueden precipitar disfunción circulatoria, insuficiencia renal, encefalopatía, hemorragia variceal o muerte. Se ha propuesto que habría una incidencia creciente de IBs por bacterias multirresistentes que tendrían peor pronóstico, menor respuesta a la terapia empírica y mayor mortalidad hospitalaria
Autor/a: Agustín Castillo Luna,1 Cristina Longo,1 Graciela Landeira y colaboradores Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam 2017;47(4):126-130
INDICE:  1. Página 1 | 2. Referencias bibliográficas
Referencias bibliográficas

1.    Thalheimer U, Triantos CK, Samonakis DN, Patch D, Burroughs AK. Infection, coagulation, and variceal bleeding in cirrhosis. Gut 2005; 54: 556-563. 
2.    Ginès P, Schrier RW. Renal failure in cirrhosis. New Engl J Med 2009; 361: 1279-1290. 
3.    Follo A, Llovet JM, Navasa M, Planas R, Forns X, Francitorra A, Rimola A, Gassull MA, Arroyo V, Rodés J. Renal impairment after spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis: incidence, clinical course, predictive factors and prognosis. Hepatology 1994; 20: 1495-1501. 
4.    Jalan R, Fernández J, Wiest R, Schnabl B, Moreau R, Angeli P, Stadlbauer V, Gustot T, Bernardi M, Canton R, Albillos A, Lam¬mert F, Wilmer A, Mookerjee R, Vila J, García Martínez R, Wen¬don J, Such J, Córdoba J, Sanyal A, García Tsao G, Arroyo V, Burroughs AK, Ginès P. Bacterial infections in cirrhosis: a position statement based on the EASL Special Conference 2013. J Hepatol 2014; 60: 1310-1324. 
5.    Acevedo J, Fernández J. New determinants of prognosis in bacterial infections in cirrhosis. World J Gastroenterol 2014; 20: 7252-7259. 
6.    Foreman MG, Mannino DM, Moss M. Cirrhosis as a risk factor for sepsis and death: analysis of the National Hospital Discharge Survey. Chest 2003; 124: 1016-1020. 
7.    Fernández J, Gustot T. Management of bacterial infections in ci¬rrhosis. J Hepatol 2012; 56: S1-S12. 
8.    Caly WR, Strauss E. A prospective study of bacterial infections in patients with cirrhosis. J Hepatol 1993; 18: 353-358. 
9.    Fernández J, Navasa M, Gomez J, Colmenero J, Vila J, Arroyo V, Rodés J. Bacterial infections in cirrhosis: epidemiological changes with invasive procedures and norfloxacin prophylaxis. Hepatology 2002; 35: 140-148. 
10.    Fernández J, Acevedo J, Castro M, Garcia O, Rodríguez de Lope C, Roca D, Pavesi M, Sola E, Moreira L, Silva A, Seva-Pereira T, Corradi F, Mensa J, Ginès P, Arroyo V. Prevalence and risk factors of infections by multiresistant bacteria in cirrhosis: a prospective study. Hepatology 2012; 55: 1551-1561. 
11.    Borzio M, Salerno F, Piantoni L, Cazzaniga M, Angeli P, Bissoli F, Boccia S, Colloredo-Mels G, Corigliano P, Fornaciari G, Marenco G, Pistarà R, Salvagnini M, Sangiovanni A. Bacterial infection in patients with advanced cirrhosis: a multicentre prospective study. Dig Liver Dis 2001; 33: 41-48. 
12.    Fernández J, Arroyo V. Bacterial infections in cirrhosis: A growing problem with significant implications. Clin Liv Dis 2013; 2: 102-105. 
13.    Arvaniti V, D’Amico G, Fede G, Manousou P, Tsochatzis E, Ple¬guezuelo M, Burroughs AK. Infections in patients with cirrhosis increase mortality four-fold and should be used in determining prognosis. Gastroenterology 2010; 139: 1246-1256. 
14.    Bauer TM, Steinbruckner B, Brinkmann FE, Ditzen AK, Schwacha H, Aponte JJ, Pelz K, Kist M, Blum HE. Small intesti¬nal bacterial overgrowth in patients with cirrhosis: prevalence and relation with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Am J Gastroente¬rol 2001; 96: 2962-2967. 
15.    Pande C, Kumar A, Sarin SK. Small-intestinal bacterial over¬growth in cirrhosis is related to the severity of liver disease. Ali¬ment Pharmacol Ther 2009; 29: 1273-1281. 
16.    Chang CS, Chen GH, Lien HC, Yeh HZ. Small intestine dysmo¬tility and bacterial overgrowth in cirrhotic patients with sponta¬neous bacterial peritonitis. Hepatology 1998; 28: 1187-1190. 
17.    Assimakopoulos SF, Tsamandas AC, Tsiaoussis GI, Karatza E, Triantos C, Vagianos CE, Spiliopoulou I, Kaltezioti V, Charonis A, Nikolopoulou VN, Scopa CD, Thomopoulos KC. Altered in¬testinal tight junctions’ expression in patients with liver cirrhosis: a pathogenetic mechanism of intestinal hyperpermeability. Eur J Clin Invest 2012; 42: 439-446.
18.    Assimakopoulos SF. Uncovering the molecular events associated with increased intestinal permeability in liver cirrhosis: the pivotal role of enterocyte tight junctions and future perspectives. J Hepa¬tol 2013; 59: 1144-1146.
19.    Wiest R, Garcia-Tsao G. Bacterial translocation (BT) in cirrhosis. Hepatology 2005; 41: 422-433.
20.    Chesta J, De Filippi C. Abnormalities in proximal small bowel motility in patients with cirrhosis. Hepatology 1993; 17: 828-832.
21.    Rimola A, Bory F, Planas R, Xaubert A, Bruguera M, Rodés J. In-fecciones bacterianas agudas en la cirrosis hepática. Gastroenterol Hepatol 1981; 4: 453-458.
22.    Levi D, Terg R, Podestá A, Abecasis R, de Glé G, Rafaelli C. Infec-ciones bacterianas en el paciente cirrótico. Gastroenterol Hepatol 1989; 12: 384-388.
23.    Acevedo J. Multiresistant bacterial infections in liver cirrhosis: Clinical impact and new empirical antibiotic treatment policies. World J Hepatol 2015; 7: 916-921.
24.    Song JY, Jung SJ, Park CW, Sohn JW, Kim WJ, Kim MJ, Cheong HJ. Prognostic significance of infection acquisition sites in spon-taneous bacterial peritonitis: nosocomial vs. community acquired. J Korean Med Sci 2006; 21: 666-671.
25.    Cereto F, Herranz X, Moreno E, Andreu A, Vergara M, Fonta-nals D, Roget M, Simó M, González A, Pratz G, Genescà J. Role of host and bacterial virulence factors in Escherichia coli sponta-neous bacterial peritonitis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008; 20:924-    929.
26.    Angeloni S, Leboffe C, Parente A, Venditti M, Giordano A, Merli M, Riggio O. Efficacy of current guidelines for the treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in the clinical practice. World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14: 2757-2762.
27.    Merli M, Lucidi C, Giannelli V, Giusto M, Riggio O, Falcone M, Ridola L, Atili AF, Venditti M. Cirrhotic patients are at risk for health care-associated bacterial infections. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010; 8: 979-985.
28.    Heo J, Seo YS, Yim HJ, Hahn T, Park SH, Ahn SH, Park JY, Kim MY, Park SK, Cho M, Um SH, Han KH, Jim HS, Baik SK, Kim BI, Cho SH. Clinical features and prognosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in Korean patients with liver cirrhosis: a mul-ticenter retrospective study. Gut Liver 2009; 3: 197-204.
29.    Umgelter A, Reindl W, Miedaner M, Schmid RM, Huber W. Fai-lure of current antibiotic first-line regimens and mortality in hos-pitalized patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Infection 2009; 37: 2-8.
30.    Navasa M, Follo A, Llovet JM, Clemente G, Vargas V, Rimola A, Marco F, Guarner C, Forné M, Planas R, Bañares R, Castells L, Jimenez de Anta MT, Arroyo V, Rodés J. Randomized, comparati-ve study of oral ofloxacine intravenous cefotaxime in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Gastroenterology 1996; 111: 1011-1017.
31.    Sort P, Navasa M, Arroyo V, Aldeguer X, Planas R, Ruiz del Arbol L, Castells L, Vargas V, Soriano G, Guevara M, Ginès P, Rodés J. Effect of intravenous albumin on renal impairment and mortality in patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. New Engl J Med 1999; 341: 403-409.
32.    Acevedo J, Fernández J. New determinants of prognosis in bacte-rial infections in cirrhosis. World J Gastroenterol 2014; 20: 7252-7259.
33.    EASL clinical practice guidelines on the management of ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and hepatorenal syndrome in ci-rrhosis. J Hepatol 2010; 53: 397-417.
34.    Thalheimer U, Triantos CK, Samonakis DN, Patch D, Burroughs AK. Infection, coagulation, and variceal bleeding in cirrhosis. Gut 2005; 54: 556-563. 
35.    Ginès P, Schrier RW. Renal failure in cirrhosis. New Engl J Med 2009; 361: 1279-1290. 
36.    Follo A, Llovet JM, Navasa M, Planas R, Forns X, Francitorra A, Rimola A, Gassull MA, Arroyo V, Rodés J. Renal impairment after spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis: incidence, clinical course, predictive factors and prognosis. Hepatology 1994; 20: 1495-1501. 
37.    Jalan R, Fernández J, Wiest R, Schnabl B, Moreau R, Angeli P, Stadlbauer V, Gustot T, Bernardi M, Canton R, Albillos A, Lam¬mert F, Wilmer A, Mookerjee R, Vila J, García Martínez R, Wen¬don J, Such J, Córdoba J, Sanyal A, García Tsao G, Arroyo V, Burroughs AK, Ginès P. Bacterial infections in cirrhosis: a position statement based on the EASL Special Conference 2013. J Hepatol 2014; 60: 1310-1324. 
38.    Acevedo J, Fernández J. New determinants of prognosis in bacterial infections in cirrhosis. World J Gastroenterol 2014; 20: 7252-7259. 
39.    Foreman MG, Mannino DM, Moss M. Cirrhosis as a risk factor for sepsis and death: analysis of the National Hospital Discharge Survey. Chest 2003; 124: 1016-1020. 
40.    Fernández J, Gustot T. Management of bacterial infections in ci¬rrhosis. J Hepatol 2012; 56: S1-S12. 
41.    Caly WR, Strauss E. A prospective study of bacterial infections in patients with cirrhosis. J Hepatol 1993; 18: 353-358. 
42.    Fernández J, Navasa M, Gomez J, Colmenero J, Vila J, Arroyo V, Rodés J. Bacterial infections in cirrhosis: epidemiological changes with invasive procedures and norfloxacin prophylaxis. Hepatology 2002; 35: 140-148. 
43.    Fernández J, Acevedo J, Castro M, Garcia O, Rodríguez de Lope C, Roca D, Pavesi M, Sola E, Moreira L, Silva A, Seva-Pereira T, Corradi F, Mensa J, Ginès P, Arroyo V. Prevalence and risk factors of infections by multiresistant bacteria in cirrhosis: a prospective study. Hepatology 2012; 55: 1551-1561. 
44.    Borzio M, Salerno F, Piantoni L, Cazzaniga M, Angeli P, Bissoli F, Boccia S, Colloredo-Mels G, Corigliano P, Fornaciari G, Marenco G, Pistarà R, Salvagnini M, Sangiovanni A. Bacterial infection in patients with advanced cirrhosis: a multicentre prospective study. Dig Liver Dis 2001; 33: 41-48. 
45.    Fernández J, Arroyo V. Bacterial infections in cirrhosis: A growing problem with significant implications. Clin Liv Dis 2013; 2: 102-105. 
46.    Arvaniti V, D’Amico G, Fede G, Manousou P, Tsochatzis E, Ple¬guezuelo M, Burroughs AK. Infections in patients with cirrhosis increase mortality four-fold and should be used in determining prognosis. Gastroenterology 2010; 139: 1246-1256. 
47.    Bauer TM, Steinbruckner B, Brinkmann FE, Ditzen AK, Schwacha H, Aponte JJ, Pelz K, Kist M, Blum HE. Small intesti¬nal bacterial overgrowth in patients with cirrhosis: prevalence and relation with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Am J Gastroente¬rol 2001; 96: 2962-2967. 
48.    Pande C, Kumar A, Sarin SK. Small-intestinal bacterial over¬growth in cirrhosis is related to the severity of liver disease. Ali¬ment Pharmacol Ther 2009; 29: 1273-1281. 
49.    Chang CS, Chen GH, Lien HC, Yeh HZ. Small intestine dysmo¬tility and bacterial overgrowth in cirrhotic patients with sponta¬neous bacterial peritonitis. Hepatology 1998; 28: 1187-1190. 
50.    Assimakopoulos SF, Tsamandas AC, Tsiaoussis GI, Karatza E, Triantos C, Vagianos CE, Spiliopoulou I, Kaltezioti V, Charonis A, Nikolopoulou VN, Scopa CD, Thomopoulos KC. Altered in¬testinal tight junctions’ expression in patients with liver cirrhosis: a pathogenetic mechanism of intestinal hyperpermeability. Eur J Clin Invest 2012; 42: 439-446.
51.    Assimakopoulos SF. Uncovering the molecular events associated with increased intestinal permeability in liver cirrhosis: the pivotal role of enterocyte tight junctions and future perspectives. J Hepa¬tol 2013; 59: 1144-1146.
52.    Wiest R, Garcia-Tsao G. Bacterial translocation (BT) in cirrhosis. Hepatology 2005; 41: 422-433.
53.    Chesta J, De Filippi C. Abnormalities in proximal small bowel motility in patients with cirrhosis. Hepatology 1993; 17: 828-832.
54.    Rimola A, Bory F, Planas R, Xaubert A, Bruguera M, Rodés J. In-fecciones bacterianas agudas en la cirrosis hepática. Gastroenterol Hepatol 1981; 4: 453-458.
55.    Levi D, Terg R, Podestá A, Abecasis R, de Glé G, Rafaelli C. Infec-ciones bacterianas en el paciente cirrótico. Gastroenterol Hepatol 1989; 12: 384-388.
56.    Acevedo J. Multiresistant bacterial infections in liver cirrhosis: Clinical impact and new empirical antibiotic treatment policies. World J Hepatol 2015; 7: 916-921.
57.    Song JY, Jung SJ, Park CW, Sohn JW, Kim WJ, Kim MJ, Cheong HJ. Prognostic significance of infection acquisition sites in spon-taneous bacterial peritonitis: nosocomial vs. community acquired. J Korean Med Sci 2006; 21: 666-671.
58.    Cereto F, Herranz X, Moreno E, Andreu A, Vergara M, Fonta-nals D, Roget M, Simó M, González A, Pratz G, Genescà J. Role of host and bacterial virulence factors in Escherichia coli sponta-neous bacterial peritonitis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008; 20:
1.    924-    929.
59.    Angeloni S, Leboffe C, Parente A, Venditti M, Giordano A, Merli M, Riggio O. Efficacy of current guidelines for the treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in the clinical practice. World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14: 2757-2762.
60.    Merli M, Lucidi C, Giannelli V, Giusto M, Riggio O, Falcone M, Ridola L, Atili AF, Venditti M. Cirrhotic patients are at risk for health care-associated bacterial infections. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010; 8: 979-985.
61.    Heo J, Seo YS, Yim HJ, Hahn T, Park SH, Ahn SH, Park JY, Kim MY, Park SK, Cho M, Um SH, Han KH, Jim HS, Baik SK, Kim BI, Cho SH. Clinical features and prognosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in Korean patients with liver cirrhosis: a mul-ticenter retrospective study. Gut Liver 2009; 3: 197-204.
62.    Umgelter A, Reindl W, Miedaner M, Schmid RM, Huber W. Fai-lure of current antibiotic first-line regimens and mortality in hos-pitalized patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Infection 2009; 37: 2-8.
63.    Navasa M, Follo A, Llovet JM, Clemente G, Vargas V, Rimola A, Marco F, Guarner C, Forné M, Planas R, Bañares R, Castells L, Jimenez de Anta MT, Arroyo V, Rodés J. Randomized, comparati-ve study of oral ofloxacine intravenous cefotaxime in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Gastroenterology 1996; 111: 1011-1017.
64.    Sort P, Navasa M, Arroyo V, Aldeguer X, Planas R, Ruiz del Arbol L, Castells L, Vargas V, Soriano G, Guevara M, Ginès P, Rodés J. Effect of intravenous albumin on renal impairment and mortality in patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. New Engl J Med 1999; 341: 403-409.
65.    Acevedo J, Fernández J. New determinants of prognosis in bacte-rial infections in cirrhosis. World J Gastroenterol 2014; 20: 7252-7259.
66.    EASL clinical practice guidelines on the management of ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and hepatorenal syndrome in ci-rrhosis. J Hepatol 2010; 53: 397-417.

 

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