Una enfermedad con plena vigencia epidemiológica | 03 JUL 17

Epidemiología actual de la sífilis

Diagnóstico y estrategias terapéuticas para clínicos generales.
INDICE:  1. Página 1 | 2. Referencias bibliográficas
Referencias bibliográficas

Referencias bilibiográficas:

1 Brandt AM. No Magic Bullet: A social history of venereal disease in the United States since 1880. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.

2 Newman L, Rowley J, Hoorn SV, et al. Global estimates of the prevalence and incidence of four curable sexually transmitted infections in 2012 based on systematic review and global reporting. PLoS One: doi; 10.1371/journal.pone.0143304.

3 WHO. Report on global sexually transmitted infection surveillance 2015. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2016

4 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2014. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, 2015.

5 Public Health England. Infection Report: Sexually Transmitted Infections. London: Public Health England, 2015.

6 Sparling PF, Swartz MN, Musher DM, Healy BP. Clinical Manifestations of syphilis. In: Holmes KK, Sparling PF, Stamm WE, et al, eds. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, fourth edn. New York: McGraw Hill, 2008: pp 661–84.

7 Hutchinson CM, Rompalo AM, Reichart CA, Hook EW III. Characteristics of patients with syphilis patients attending Baltimore STD clinics: multiple high risk subgroups and interactions with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Arch Intern Med 1991; 151: 511–16.

8 Phipps W, Kent CK, Kohn R, Klausner JD. Risk factors for repeat syphilis in men who have sex with men, San Francisco. Sex Transm Dis 2009; 36: 331–35.

9 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Notes from the field: Repeat syphilis infection and HIV coinfection among men who have sex with men—Baltimore, Maryland, 2010–2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2013; 62: 649–50.

10 Grassly NC, Fraser C, Garnett GP. Host immunity and synchronized epidemics of syphilis across the United States. Nature 2005; 433: 417–21.

11 Darrow WW, Echenberg DF, Jaffe HW, et al. Risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in homosexual men. Am J Public Health 1987; 77: 479–83

12 Hook EW III. Syphilis and HIV infection. J Infect Dis 1989; 160: 530–34.

13 Stamm WE, Handsfield HH, Rompalo AM, Ashley RL, Roberts PL, Corey L. The association between genital ulcer disease and the acquisition of HIV infection in homosexual men. JAMA 1988;260: 1429–33.

14 Peterman TA, Newman DR, Maddox L, Schmitt K, Shiver S. High risk for HIV following syphilis diagnosis among men in Florida, 2000-2011. Public Health Rep 2014: 129: 164–69.

15 Pathela P, Braunstein SL, Blank S, Shepard C, Schillinger JA. The high risk of HIV diagnosis following a diagnosis of syphilis: a population-level analysis of New York City men. Clin Infect Dis 2015; 61: 281–87.

16 Hutchinson CM, Hook EW III, Shepherd M, Verley J, Rompalo AM. Altered clinical presentations and manifestations of early syphilis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Ann Intern Med 1994; 121: 94–99.

17 Rolfs RT, Joesoef MR, Hendershot EF, et al. The syphilis and HIV Study Group. A randomized trial of enhanced therapy for early syphilis in patients with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med 1997; 337: 307–14.

18 Giacani L, Lukehart SA. The endemic treponematoses. Clin Microbiol Rev 2014; 27: 89–115.

19 Parran T. Shadow on the Land. Syphilis. New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1937.

20 Hook EW III, Marra CM. Acquired syphilis in adults. N Engl J Med 1992; 326: 1060–69.

21 Mertz KJ, Trees D, Levine WC, et al. Etiology of genital ulcers and prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus coinfection in 10 US cities. J Infect Dis 1998; 178: 1795–98.

22 Gjestland T. The Oslo study of untreated syphilis: An epidemiologic investigation of the natural course of syphilitic infection based on a restudy of the Boeck-Bruusgaard material. J Chronic Dis 1955;2: 311–44.

23 Workowski KA, Bolan GA. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015. MMWR Recomm Rep 2015; 64: 1–137.

24 Merritt HH, Adams RD, Solomon HC. Neurosyphilis. New York: Oxford University Press, 1946.

25 Chesny AM, Kemp JE. Incidence of Spirochaeta pallidum in cerebrospinal fluid during the early stages of syphilis. JAMA 1924;22: 172–78.

26 Lukehart SA, Hook EW III, Baker-Zander SA, Collier AC, Critchlow CW, Handsfield HH. Invasion of the central nervous system by Treponema pallidum: implications for diagnosis and treatment. Ann Intern Med 1988; 109: 855–62.

27 Moore JE, Kemp JE, Eagle H, Padget P, Goodwin MS. The Modern Treatment of Syphilis. Springfield: CC Thomas, 1941.

28 LaFond RE, Lukehart SA. Biological basis for syphilis. Clin Microbiol Rev 2006; 19: 29-49.

29 Larsen SA, Pope V, Johnson RE, Kennedy EJ. A manual of tests for syphilis. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association; 1998, pp 1–47.

30 Holman KM, Hook EW III. Clinical management of early syphilis. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2013; 11: 839–43.

31 Brown ST, Zaidi A, Larsen SA, Reynolds GH. Serological response to syphilis treatment. A new analysis of old data. JAMA 1985; 253: 1296–99.

32 Romanowski B, Sutherland R, Fick FH, Mooney D, Love EJ. Serologic response to treatment of infectious syphilis. Ann Intern Med 1991; 114: 1005–10.

33 Sena AC, Wolff M, Martin DH, et al. Predictors of serological cure and the serofast state after treatment in HIV-negative persons with early syphilis. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 53: 1092–99.

34 Sena AC, Wolff M, Behets F, et al. Response to therapy following retreatment of serofast early syphilis patients with benzathine penicillin. Clin Infect Dis 2013; 56: 420–22.

35 Thomas DL, Rompalo AM, Zenilman J, Hoover D, Hook EW III, Quinn TC. Association of hepatitis C virus infection with false-positive tests for syphilis. J Infect Dis 1994; 170: 1579–81.

36 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Discordant results from reverse sequence syphilis screening-five laboratories, United States, 2006–2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2011;60: 133–37.

37 Sena AC, White BL, Sparling PF. Novel Treponema pallidum serologic tests: a paradigm shift in syphilis screening for the 21st century. Clin Infect Dis 2010; 51: 700–08.

38 WHO. Guidelines for the Treatment of Treponema pallidum (syphilis). Geneva: World Health Organization, 2016.

39 WHO. Addressing global shortages of medicines, and the safety and accessibility of children’s medication. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2015.

40 Kingston M, French P, Higgins S, et al. UK National Guidelines on the Management of Syphilis 2015. Inter J STD AIDS 2008;19: 729–40.

41 Hook EW III, Martin DH, Stephens J, Smith BS, Smith K. A randomized, comparative pilot study of azithromycin versus benzathine penicillin G for treatment of early syphilis. Sex Transm Dis 2002; 29: 486–90.

42 Reidner G, Rusizoka M, Todd, et al. Single-dose azithromycin verses penicillin benzathine for the treatment of early syphilis. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 1236–44.

43 Stamm LV, Bergen HL. A point mutation associated with bacterial macrolide resistance is present in both 23S rRNA genes of an erythromycin resistant Treponema pallidum clinical isolate. Antimicro Agents Chemother 2000; 44: 806–07.

44 Lukehart SA, Gordornes C, Molini, et al. Macrolide resistance in Treponema pallidum in the United States and Ireland. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 154–58.

45 Marra CM, Maxwell CL, Tantalo LC, Sahi SK, Lukehart SA. Normalization of serum rapid plasma regain titer predicts normalization of cerebrospinal fluid and clinical abnormalities after treatment of neurosyphilis. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 47: 893–99.

46 Gottlieb SL, Deal CD, Giersing B, et al. The global roadmap for advancing development of vaccines against sexually transmitted infections: update and next steps. Vaccine 2016; 34: 2939–47.



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