Diagnóstico y tratamiento actualizado | 28 SEP 16

Accidente cerebrovascular

La última década ha sido testigo de avances extraordinarios en el tratamiento y la prevención del ACV.
Autor/a: Graeme J Hankey The Lancet -13 September 2016
INDICE:  1. Página 1 | 2. Referencias bibliográficas
Referencias bibliográficas


1 Feigin VL, Forouzanfar MH, Krishnamurthi R, for the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010) and the GBD Stroke Experts Group. Global and regional burden of stroke during 1990–2010: findings from the

Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 2014; 383: 245–54.

2 Krishnamurthi RV, Feigin VL, Forouzanfar MH, et al, for the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010), for the GBD Stroke Experts Group. Global and regional burden of first-ever ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke during 1990–2010: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet Glob Health 2013; 1: e259–81.

3 Sacco RL, Kasner SE, Broderick JP, et al. An updated defi nition of stroke for the 21st century: a statement for healthcare professionals

from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 2013; 44: 2064–89.

4 Hankey GJ, Blacker DJ. Is it a stroke? BMJ 2015; 350: h56.

5 Whiteley WN, Wardlaw JM, Dennis MS, Sandercock PA. Clinical scores for the identifi cation of stroke and transient ischaemic attack in the emergency department: a cross-sectional study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2011; 82: 1006–10.

6 Brunser AM, Hoppe A, Illanes S, et al. Accuracy of diff usionweighted imaging in the diagnosis of stroke in patients with suspected cerebral infarct. Stroke 2013; 44: 1169–71.

7 Brazzelli M, Chappell FM, Miranda H, et al. Diff usion-weighted imaging and diagnosis of transient ischemic attack. Ann Neurol 2014; 75: 67–76.

8 Gibson LM, Whiteley W. The diff erential diagnosis of suspected stroke: a systematic review. J R Coll Physicians Edinb 2013; 43: 114–48.

9 Bamford J, Sandercock P, Dennis M, Burn J, Warlow C. Classifi cation and natural history of clinically identifi able subtypes of cerebral infarction. Lancet 1991; 337: 1521–26.

10 Adams HP Jr, Bendixen BH, Kappelle LJ, et al. Classifi cation of subtype of acute ischemic stroke. Defi nitions for use in a multicenter clinical trial. TOAST. Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment. Stroke 1993; 24: 35–41.

11 Amarenco P, Bogousslavsky J, Caplan LR, Donnan GA, Wolf ME, Hennerici MG. The ASCOD phenotyping of ischemic stroke (Updated ASCO Phenotyping). Cerebrovasc Dis 2013; 36: 1–5.

12 Ay H, Benner T, Arsava EM, et al. A computerized algorithm for etiologic classifi cation of ischemic stroke: the Causative Classifi cation of Stroke System. Stroke 2007; 38: 2979–84.

13 Hart RG, Diener HC, Coutts SB, et al, and the Cryptogenic Stroke/ESUS International Working roup. Embolic strokes of undetermined source: the case for a new clinical construct. Lancet Neurol 2014; 13: 429–38.

14 Rannikmae L, Woodfi eld R, Anderson CS, et al. Reliability of intracerebral haemorrhage classifi cation systems: a systematic review. Int J Stroke 2016; 11: 626–36.

15 Xie X, Atkins E, Lv J, et al. Eff ects of intensive blood pressure lowering on cardiovascular and renal outcomes: updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 2016; 387: 435–43.

16 Collins R, Reith C, Emberson J, et al. Interpretation of the evidence for the effi cacy and safety of statin therapy. Lancet 2016; published online Sept 8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31357-5.

17 Raman G, Moorthy D, Hadar N, et al. Management strategies for asymptomatic carotid stenosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 2013; 158: 676–85.

18 Hart RG, Pearce LA, Aguilar MI. Meta-analysis: antithrombotic therapy to prevent stroke in patients who have nonvalvular atrial fi brillation. Ann Intern Med 2007; 146: 857–67.

19 Mons U, Muezzinler A, Gellert C, et al, for the CHANCES Consortium. Impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular events and mortality among older adults: meta-analysis of individual participant data from prospective cohort studies of the CHANCES consortium. BMJ 2015; 350: h1551.

20 Zhang C, Qin YY, Chen Q, et al. Alcohol intake and risk of stroke: a dose response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Int J Cardiol 2014; 174: 669–77.

21 Kernan WN, Viscoli CM, Furie KL, et al, for the IRIS Trial Investigators. Pioglitazone after Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack. N Engl J Med 2016; 374: 1321–31.

22 Peters SA, Huxley RR, Woodward M. Diabetes as a risk factor for stroke in women compared with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 64 cohorts, including 775 385 individuals and 12 539 strokes. Lancet 2014; 383: 1973–80.

23 O’Donnell MJ, Chin SL, Rangarajan S, et al, for the INTERSTROKE investigators. Global and regional eff ects of potentially modifi able risk factors associated with acute stroke in 32 countries (INTERSTROKE): a case-control study. Lancet 2016; 388: 761–75.

24 Feigin VL, Roth GA, Naghavi M, for the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors Study 2013 and Stroke Experts Writing Group. Global burden of stroke and risk factors in 188 countries, during 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet Neurol 2016; 15: 913–24.

25 NINDS Stroke Genetics Network (SiGN) and International Stroke Genetics Consortium. Loci associated with ischaemic stroke and its subtypes (SiGN): a genome-wide association study. Lancet Neurol 2016; 15: 174–84.

26 Neurology Working Group of the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium; Stroke Genetics Network (SiGN); International Stroke Genetics Consortium (ISGC). Identifi cation of additional risk loci for stroke and small vessel disease: a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies. Lancet Neurol 2016; 15: 695–707.

27 Guiraud V, Amor MB, Mas JL, Touze E. Triggers of ischemic stroke: A systematic review. Stroke 2010; 41: 2669–77.

28 Luengo-Fernandez R, Paul NL, Gray AM, et al, for the Oxford Vascular Study. Population-based study of disability and institutionalization after transient ischemic attack and stroke: 10-year results of the Oxford Vascular Study. Stroke 2013; 44: 2854–61.

29 Poon MT, Fonville AF, Al-Shahi Salman R. Long-term prognosis after intracerebral haemorrhage: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2014; 85: 660–67.

30 Ayis SA, Coker B, Rudd AG, Dennis MS, Wolfe CD. Predicting independent survival after stroke: a European study for the development and validation of standardised stroke scales and prediction models of outcome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2013; 84: 288–96.

31 Coull AJ, Lovett JK, Rothwell PM, for the Oxford Vascular Study. Population based study of early risk of stroke after transient ischaemic attack or minor stroke: implications for public education and organisation of services. BMJ 2004; 328: 326.

32 Kiyohara T, Kamouchi M, Kumai Y, et al, for the Fukuoka Stroke Registry Investigators. ABCD3 and ABCD3-I scores are superior to ABCD2 score in the prediction of short- and long-term risks of stroke after transient ischemic attack. Stroke 2014; 45: 418–25.

33 Arsava EM, Kim G-M, Oiverira-Filho J, et al. Prediction of Early Recurrence after Acute Ischemic Stroke. JAMA Neurol 2016; 73: 396–401.

34 Wardlaw JM, Brazzelli M, Chappell FM, et al. ABCD2 score and secondary stroke prevention: meta-analysis and eff ect per 1000 patients triaged. Neurology 2015; 85: 373–80.

35 Rothwell PM, Giles MF, Chandratheva A, et al. for the Early use of Existing Preventive Strategies for Stroke (EXPRESS) study. Eff ect of urgent treatment of transient ischaemic attack and minor stroke on early recurrent stroke (EXPRESS study): a prospective population-based sequential comparison. Lancet 2007; 370: 1432–42.

36 Amarenco P, Lavallee PC, Labreuche J, et al, for the TIAregistry. org Investigators. One-Year Risk of Stroke after Transient Ischemic Attack or Minor Stroke. N Engl J Med 2016; 374: 1533–42.

37 Mohan KM, Wolfe CD, Rudd AG, et al. Risk and cumulative risk of stroke recurrence: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Stroke 2011; 42: 1489–94.

38 Hijazi Z, Lindback J, Alexander JH, et al, for the ARISTOTLE and STABILITY Investigators. The ABC (age, biomarkers, clinical history) stroke risk score: a biomarker-based risk score for predicting stroke in atrial fi brillation. Eur Heart J 2016; 37: 1582–90.

39 Biffi A, Anderson CD, Battey TW, et al. Association between blood pressure control and risk of recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage. JAMA 2015; 314: 904–12.

40 Emberson J, Lees KR, Lyden P, et al, for the Stroke Thrombolysis Trialists’ Collaborative Group. Eff ect of treatment delay, age, and stroke severity on the eff ects of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke: a meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomised trials. Lancet 2014; 384: 1929–35.

41 Badhiwala JH, Nassiri F, Alhazzani W, et al. Endovascular thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke: a meta-analysis. JAMA 2015; 314: 1832–43.

42 Goyal M, Menon BK, van Zwam WH, et al, for the HERMES collaborators. Endovascular thrombectomy after large-vessel ischaemic stroke: a meta-analysis of individual patient data from fi ve randomised trials. Lancet 2016; 387: 1723–31.

43 Sandercock PA, Counsell C, Tseng MC, Cecconi E. Oral antiplatelet therapy for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014; 3: CD000029.

44 Yang MH, Lin HY, Fu J, Roodrajeetsing G, Shi SL, Xiao SW. Decompressive hemicraniectomy in patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Surgeon 2015; 13: 230–40.

45 Tsivgoulis G, Katsanos AH, Butcher KS, et al, Intensive blood pressure reduction in acute intracerebral hemorrhage: a meta-analysis. Neurology 2014; 83: 1523–29.

46 Qureshi AI, Palesch YY, Barsan WG, et al, and the ATACH-2 Trial Investigators and the Neurological Emergency Treatment Trials Network. Intensive blood-pressure lowering in patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage. N Engl J Med 2016 June 8. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1603460.

47 Mendelow AD, Gregson BA, Rowan EN, et al. Early surgery versus initial conservative treatment in patients with spontaneous supratentorial lobar intracerebral haematomas (STICH II): a randomised trial. Lancet 2013; 382: 397–408.

48 Stroke Unit Trialists’ Collaboration. Organised inpatient (stroke unit) care for stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; 9: CD000197.

49 Strbian D, Michel P, Seiff ge DJ, et al. Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage after stroke thrombolysis: comparison of prediction scores. Stroke 2014; 45: 752–58.

50 Anderson CS, Robinson T, Lindley RI, et al, for the ENCHANTED Investigators and Coordinators. Low-Dose versus  standard-dose intravenous alteplase in acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 2016; 374: 2313–23.

51 Schellinger PD, Alexandrov AV, Barreto AD, for the CLOTBUSTER Investigators. Combined lysis of thrombus with ultrasound and systemic tissue plasminogen activator for emergent revascularization in acute ischemic stroke (CLOTBUST-ER): design and methodology of a multinational phase 3 trial. Int J Stroke

2015; 10: 1141–48.

52 Lyden PD, Hemmen TM, Grotta J, Rapp K, Raman R. Endovascular therapeutic hypothermia for acute ischemic stroke: ICTuS 2/3 protocol. Int J Stroke 2014; 9: 117–25.

53 Albers GW, von Kummer R, Truelsen T, et al, for the DIAS-3 Investigators. Safety and effi cacy of desmoteplase given 3–9 h after ischaemic stroke in patients with occlusion or high-grade stenosis in major cerebral arteries (DIAS-3): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet Neurol 2015; 14: 575–84.

54 Huang X, MacIsaac R, Thompson JL, et al. Tenecteplase versus alteplase in stroke thrombolysis: an individual patient data meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int J Stroke 2016; 11: 534–43.

55 Zinkstok SM, Roos YB, for the ARTIS investigators. Early administration of aspirin in patients treated with alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2012; 380: 731–37.

56 Warach SJ, Luby M, Albers GW, et al, for the Stroke Imaging Research (STIR) and VISTA-Imaging Investigators. Acute stroke imaging research roadmap III imaging selection and outcomes in acute stroke reperfusion clinical trials: consensus recommendations and further research priorities. Stroke 2016; 47: 1389–98.

57 Goyal M, Yu AY, Menon BK, et al. Endovascular therapy in acute ischemic stroke: challenges and transition from trials to bedside. Stroke 2016; 47: 548–53.

58 Yuan ZH, Jiang JK, Huang WD, Pan J, Zhu JY, Wang JZ. A meta-analysis of the effi cacy and safety of recombinant activated factor VII for patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage without hemophilia. J Clin Neurosci 2010; 17: 685–93.

59 Baharoglu MI, Cordonnier C, Salman RA, and the PATCH Investigators. Platelet transfusion versus standard care after acute stroke due to spontaneous cerebral haemorrhage associated with antiplatelet therapy (PATCH): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial. Lancet 2016; 387: 2605–13.

60 Kuramatsu JB, Gerner ST, Schellinger PD, et al. Anticoagulant reversal, blood pressure levels, and anticoagulant resumption in patients with anticoagulation-related intracerebral hemorrhage. JAMA 2015; 313: 824–36.

61 Steiner T, Poli S, Griebe M, et al. Fresh frozen plasma versus prothrombin complex concentrate in patients with intracranial haemorrhage related to vitamin K antagonists (INCH): a randomised trial. Lancet Neurol 2016; 15: 566–73.

62 Pollack CV Jr, Reilly PA, Eikelboom J, et al. Idarucizumab for dabigatran reversal. N Engl J Med 2015; 373: 511–520.

63 Siegal DM, Curnutte JT, Connolly SJ, et al. Andexanet alfa for the reversal of factor Xa inhibitor activity. N Engl J Med 2015; 373: 2413–24.

64 Ansell JE, Bakhru SH, Laulicht BE, et al. Use of PER977 to reverse the anticoagulant eff ect of edoxaban. N Engl J Med 2014; 371: 2141–42.

65 Aronis KN, Hylek EM. Who, when, and how to reverse non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants. J Thromb Thrombolysis 2016; 41: 253–72.

66 Gregson BA, Broderick JP, Auer LM, et al. Individual patient data subgroup meta-analysis of surgery for spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke 2012; 43: 1496–504.

67 Mould WA, Carhuapoma JR, Muschelli J, et al. Minimally invasive surgery plus recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator for intracerebral hemorrhage evacuation decreases perihematomal edema. Stroke 2013; 44: 627–34.

68 Ziai WC, Tuhrim S, Lane K, for the CLEAR III Investigators. A multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase III study of Clot Lysis Evaluation of Accelerated Resolution of Intraventricular Hemorrhage (CLEAR III). Int J Stroke 2014; 9: 536–42.

69 Bray BD, Ayis S, Campbell J, et al. Associations between the organisation of stroke services, process of care, and mortality in England: prospective cohort study. BMJ 2013; 346: f2827.

70 Langhorne P, de Villiers L, Pandian JD. Applicability of stroke-unit care to low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet Neurol 2012; 11: 341–48.

71 Visvanathan A, Dennis M, Whiteley W. Parenteral fl uid regimens for improving functional outcome in people with acute stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015; 9: CD011138.

72 Cohen DL, Roff e C, Beavan J, et al. Post-stroke dysphagia: a review and design considerations for future trials. Int J Stroke 2016; 11: 399–411.

73 Chamorro A, Dirnagl U, Urra X, Planas AM. Neuroprotection in acute stroke: targeting excitotoxicity, oxidative and nitrosative stress, and infl ammation. Lancet Neurol 2016; 15: 869–81.

74 Bath PM, Krishnan K. Interventions for deliberately altering blood pressure in acute stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014; 10: CD000039.

75 Bath PM, Woodhouse L, Scutt P, et al, for the ENOS Trial Investigators Effi cacy of nitric oxide, with or without continuing antihypertensive treatment, for management of high blood pressure in acute stroke (ENOS): a partial-factorial randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2015; 385: 617–28.

76 Bellolio MF, Gilmore RM, Ganti L. Insulin for glycaemic control in acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014;1: CD005346.

77 Westendorp WF, Vermeij JD, Zock E, et al, for the PASS investigators. The Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study (PASS): a pragmatic randomised open-label masked endpoint clinical trial. Lancet 2015; 385: 1519–26.

78 Kalra L, Irshad S, Hodsoll J, et al, for the STROKE-INF Investigators. Prophylactic antibiotics after acute stroke for reducing pneumonia in patients with dysphagia (STROKE-INF): a prospective, cluster-randomised, open-label, masked endpoint, controlled clinical trial. Lancet 2015; 386: 1835–44.

79 CLOTS (Clots in Legs Or sTockings after Stroke) Trials Collaboration. Eff ect of intermittent pneumatic compression on disability, living circumstances, quality of life, and hospital costs after stroke: secondary analyses from CLOTS 3, a randomised trial. Lancet Neurol 2014; 13: 1186–92.

80 Geeganage CM, Sprigg N, Bath MW, Bath PMW. Balance of symptomatic pulmonary embolism and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage with low-dose anticoagulation in recent ischemic stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2013; 22: 1018–27.

81 Rothwell PM, Algra A, Chen Z, Diener H-C, Norrving B, Mehta Z. Eff ects of aspirin on risk and severity of early recurrent stroke after transient ischaemic attack and ischaemic stroke: time-course analysis of randomised trials. Lancet 2016; 388: 365–75.

82 Johnston SC, Amarenco P, Albers GW, et al, for the SOCRATES Steering Committee and Investigators. Ticagrelor versus aspirin in acute stroke or transient ischemic attack. N Engl J Med 2016; 375: 35–43.

83 Wong KS, Wang Y, Leng X, et al. Early dual versus mono antiplatelet therapy for acute non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation 2013; 128: 1656–66.

84 Rerkasem K, Rothwell PM. Carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011; 4: CD001081. 85 Bonati LH, Lyrer P, Ederle J, Featherstone R, Brown MM. Percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty and stenting for carotid artery stenosis. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev 2012; 9: CD000515.

86 Bonati LH, Dobson J, Featherstone RL, et al, for the International Carotid Stenting Study investigators. Long-term outcomes after stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of symptomatic carotid stenosis: the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) randomised trial. Lancet 2015; 385: 529–38.

87 Brott TG, Howard G, Roubin GS, et al. Long-term results of stenting versus endarterectomy for carotid-artery stenosis. N Engl J Med 2016; 374: 1021–31.

88 Baigent C, Blackwell L, Collins R, et al, for the Antithrombotic Trialists’ (ATT) Collaboration, Aspirin in the primary and secondary prevention of vascular disease: collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised trials. Lancet 2009; 373: 1849–60.

89 Sudlow CL, Mason G, Maurice JB, Wedderburn CJ, Hankey GJ. Thienopyridine derivatives versus aspirin for preventing stroke and other serious vascular events in high vascular risk patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009; 4: CD001246.

90 Halkes PH, Gray LJ, Bath PM, et al. Dipyridamole plus aspirin versus aspirin alone in secondary prevention after TIA or stroke: a meta-analysis by risk. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2008; 79: 1218–23.

91 Sacco RL, Diener HC, Yusuf S, for the PRoFESS Study Group. Aspirin and extended-release dipyridamole versus clopidogrel for recurrent stroke. N Engl J Med 2008; 359: 1238–51.

92 Kamal AK, Naqvi I, Husain MR, Khealani BA. Cilostazol versus aspirin for secondary prevention of vascular events after stroke of arterial origin. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011; 1: CD008076.

93 Liu L, Wang Z, Gong L, et al. Blood pressure reduction for the secondary prevention of stroke: a Chinese trial and a systematic review of the literature. Hypertens Res 2009; 32: 1032–40.

94 Amarenco P, Labreuche J. Lipid management in the prevention of stroke: review and updated meta-analysis of statins for stroke prevention. Lancet Neurol 2009; 8: 453–63.

95 Saxena R, Koudstaal PJ. Anticoagulants for preventing stroke in patients with nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation and a history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004; 2: CD000185.

96 Ruff CT, Giugliano RP, Braunwald E, et al. Comparison of the effi cacy and safety of new oral anticoagulants with warfarin in patients with atrial fi brillation: a meta-analysis of randomised trials. Lancet 2014; 383: 955–62.

97 Holmes DR Jr, Doshi SK, Kar S, et al. Left atrial appendage closure as an alternative to warfarin for stroke prevention in atrial fi brillation: a patient-level meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2015; 65: 2614–23.

98 Kent DM, Dahabreh JH, Ruthazer R, et al. Device closure of patent foramen ovale after stroke: Pooled analysis from all completed randomized trials. J Am Coll Cardiol 2016; 67: 907–17.

99 Wang Y, Zhao X, Lin J, et al for the CHANCE investigators. Loss-of-function allele status and effi cacy of clopidogrel for risk reduction among patients with minor stroke or transient ischemic attack. JAMA 2016; 316: 70–78.

100 Lee M, Saver JL, Hong KS, Rao NM, Wu YL, Ovbiagele B. Risk-benefi t profi le of long-term dual- versus single-antiplatelet therapy among patients with ischemic stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 2013; 159: 463–70.

101 Sandercock PA, Counsell C, Kane EJ. Anticoagulants for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015; 3: CD000024.

102 Whiteley WN, Adams HP Jr, Bath PM, et al. Targeted use of heparin, heparinoids, or low-molecular-weight heparin to improve outcome after acute ischaemic stroke: an individual patient data meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Lancet Neurol 2013; 12: 539–45.

103 Markus HS, Hayter E, Levi C, Feldman A, Venables G, Norris J, for the CADISS trial investigators. Antiplatelet treatment compared with anticoagulation treatment for cervical artery dissection (CADISS): a randomised trial. Lancet Neurol 2015; 14: 361–67.

104 Rothwell PM, Mehta Z, Howard SC, et al. From subgroups to individuals: general principles and the example of carotid endarterectomy. Lancet 2005; 365: 256–65.

105 De Rango P, Brown MM, Chaturvedi S, et al. Summary of evidence on early carotid intervention for recently symptomatic stenosis based on meta-analysis of current risks. Stroke 2015;46: 3423–36.

106 Derdeyn CP, Chimowitz MI, Lynn MJ, et al. and the Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis Trial Investigators. Aggressive medical treatment with or without stenting in high-risk patients with intracranial artery stenosis (SAMMPRIS): the fi nal results of a randomised trial. Lancet 2014; 383: 333–41.

107 Zaidat OO, Fitzsimmons BF, Woodward BK, et al, for the VISSIT Trial Investigators. Eff ect of a balloon-expandable intracranial stent vs medical therapy on risk of stroke in patients with symptomatic intracranial stenosis: the VISSIT randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2015; 313: 1240–48.

108 Compter A, van der Worp HB, Schonewille WJ, et al, for the VAST investigators. Stenting versus medical treatment in patients with symptomatic vertebral artery stenosis: a randomised open-label phase 2 trial. Lancet Neurol 2015; 14: 606–14.

109 Esposito G, Amin-Hanjani S, Regli L. Role of and indications for bypass surgery after Carotid Occlusion Surgery Study (COSS)? Stroke 2016; 47: 282–90.

110 Odden MC, McClure LA, Sawaya BP, et al. Achieved Blood Pressure and Outcomes in the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes Trial. Hypertension 2016; 67: 63–69.

111 Webb AJ, Rothwell PM. Eff ect of dose and combination of antihypertensives on interindividual blood pressure variability: a systematic review. Stroke 2011; 42: 2860–65.

112 Seidu S, Achana FA, Gray LJ, Davies MJ, Khunti K. Eff ects of glucose-lowering and multifactorial interventions on cardiovascular and mortality outcomes: a meta-analysis of randomized control trials. Diabet Med 2016; 33: 280–89.

113 Tuccori M, Filion KB, Yin H, Yu OH, Platt RW, Azoulay L. Pioglitazone use and risk of bladder cancer: population based cohort study. BMJ 2016; 352: i1541.

114 Marti-Carvajal AJ, Sola I, Lathyris D. Homocysteine-lowering interventions for preventing cardiovascular events. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015; 1: CD006612.

115 Boardman HM, Hartley L, Eisinga A, et al. Hormone therapy for preventing cardiovascular disease in post-menopausal women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015; 3: CD002229.

116 Lennon O, Galvin R, Smith K, Doody C, Blake C. Lifestyle interventions for secondary disease prevention in stroke and transient ischaemic attack: a systematic review. Eur J Prev Cardiol 2014; 21: 1026–39.

117 Lawrence M, Pringle J, Kerr S, Booth J, Govan L, Roberts NJ. Multimodal secondary prevention behavioral interventions for TIA and stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 2015; 10: e0120902.

Eikelboom JW, Connolly SJ, Brueckmann M, for the RE-ALIGN Investigators. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with mechanical heart valves. N Engl J Med 2013; 369: 1206–14.

119 Paciaroni M, Agnelli G, Falocci N, et al. Early recurrence and cerebral bleeding in patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation: eff ect of anticoagulation and its timing: the RAF Study. Stroke 2015; 46: 2175–82.

120 Hijazi Z, Oldgren J, Lindback J, et al, for the ARISTOTLE and RE-LY Investigators. The novel biomarker-based ABC (age, biomarkers, clinical history)-bleeding risk score for patients with atrial fi brillation: a derivation and validation study. Lancet 2016; 387: 2302–11.

121 Kent DM, Dahabreh IJ, Ruthazer R, et al. Anticoagulant vs. antiplatelet therapy in patients with cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale: an individual participant data meta-analysis. Eur Heart J 2015; 36: 2381–89.

122 Hebert D, Lindsay MP, McIntyre A, et al. Canadian stroke best practice recommendations: Stroke rehabilitation practice guidelines, update 2015. Int J Stroke 2016; 11: 459–84.

123 Pollock A, Baer G, Campbell P, et al. Physical rehabilitation approaches for the recovery of function and mobility following stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014; 4: CD001920.

124 Bernhardt J, Langhorne P, Lindley RI, et al, for the AVERT Trial Collaboration group. Effi cacy and safety of very early mobilization within 24 h of stroke onset (AVERT): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2015; 386: 46–55.

125 Pollock A, Farmer SE, Brady MC, et al. Interventions for improving upper limb function after stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014; 11: CD010820.

126 Winstein CJ, Wolf SL, Dromerick AW. Eff ect of a task-orientated rehabilitation program on upper extremity recovery following motor stroke. The ICARE randomised clinical trial. JAMA 2016; 315: 571–81.

127 Mehrholz J, Pohl M, Platz T, Kugler J, Elsner B. Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength after stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015; 11: CD006876.

128 Saunders DH, Sanderson M, Brazzelli M, Greig CA, Mead GE. Physical fitness training for stroke patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; 10: CD003316.

129 Mehrholz J, Pohl M, Elsner B. Treadmill training and body weight support for walking after stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014; 1: CD002840.

130 Bradt J, Magee WL, Dileo C, Wheeler BL, McGilloway E. Music therapy for acquired brain injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010; 7: CD006787.

131 Gracies JM, Brashear A, Jech R, et al. for the International AbobotulinumtoxinA Adult Upper Limb Spasticity Study Group. Safety and effi cacy of abobotulinumtoxinA for hemiparesis in adults with upper limb spasticity after stroke or traumatic brain injury: a double-blind randomised controlled trial. Lancet Neurol 2015; 14: 992–1001.

132 Stein C, Fritsch CG, Robinson C, Sbruzzi G, Plentz RD. Eff ects of Electrical Stimulation in Spastic Muscles After Stroke: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Stroke 2015; 46: 2197–205.

133 Brady MC, Kelly H, Godwin J, Enderby P, Campbell P. Speech and language therapy for aphasia following stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016; 6: CD000425.

134 Elsner B, Kugler J, Pohl M, Mehrholz J. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for improving aphasia in patients with aphasia after stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015; 5: CD009760.

135 Loetscher T, Lincoln NB. Cognitive rehabilitation for attention defi cits following stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; 5: CD002842.

136 Chung CS, Pollock A, Campbell T, Durward BR, Hagen S. Cognitive rehabilitation for executive dysfunction in adults with stroke or other adult non-progressive acquired brain damage. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; 4: CD008391.

137 Bowen A, Hazelton C, Pollock A, Lincoln NB. Cognitive rehabilitation for spatial neglect following stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; 7: CD003586.

138 Wu S, Kutlubaev MA, Chun HY, et al. Interventions for post-stroke fatigue. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015; 7: CD007030.

139 Mead GE, Hsieh CF, Lee R, et al. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for stroke recovery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 11: CD009286.

140 Prasad K, Sharma A, Garg A, et al, for the InveST Study Group. Intravenous autologous bone marrow mononuclear stem cell therapy for ischemic stroke: a multicentric, randomized trial. Stroke 2014; 45: 3618–24.

141 Kalladka D, Sinden J, Pollock K, et al. Human neural stem cells in patients with chronic ischaemic stroke (PISCES): a phase 1, first-in-man study. Lancet 2016; 388: 787–96.

142 Fearon P, Langhorne P, for the Early Supported Discharge Trialists. Services for reducing duration of hospital care for acute stroke patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 9: CD000443.



Usted debe ingresar al sitio con su cuenta de usuario IntraMed para ver los comentarios de sus colegas o para expresar su opinión. Si ya tiene una cuenta IntraMed o desea registrase, ingrese aquí