Singh H, Meyer AN, Thomas EJ. The frequency of diagnostic errors in outpatient care: estimations from three large observational studies involving US adult populations. BMJ Qual Saf 2014;23:727-31.
Saber Tehrani AS, Lee H, Mathews SC, et al. 25-year summary of US malpractice claims for diagnostic errors 1986-2010: an analysis from the National Practitioner Data Bank. BMJ Qual Saf 2013;22:672-80.
Institute of Medicine. Improving diagnosis in health care. 2015. http://iom.nationalacademies.org/Reports/2015/Improving-Diagnosis-in-Healthcare.aspx.
Christakis NA, Lamont EB. Extent and determinants of error in doctors’ prognoses in terminally ill patients: prospective cohort study. BMJ 2000;320:469-72.
Gill TM. The central role of prognosis in clinical decision making. JAMA 2012;307:199-200.
DeFilippis AP, Young R, Carrubba CJ, et al. An analysis of calibration and discrimination among multiple cardiovascular risk scores in a modern multiethnic cohort. Ann Intern Med 2015;162:266-75.
Fox E, Landrum-McNiff K, Zhong Z, Dawson NV, Wu AW, Lynn J. SUPPORT Investigators. Study to Understand Prognoses and Preferences for Outcomes and Risks of Treatments. Evaluation of prognostic criteria for determining hospice eligibility in patients with advanced lung, heart, or liver disease. JAMA 1999;282:1638-45.
Chandra A, Khullar D, Lee TH. Addressing the challenge of gray-zone medicine. N Engl J Med 2015;372:203-5.