Una guía para el médico general | 03 AGO 15

Fiebre reumática aguda

La FRA se caracteriza por un síndrome clínico cuyas manifestaciones más comunes son las artralgias y la carditis. Consideraciones sobre la fiebre reumática aguda, en particular su diagnóstico y manejo para médicos no especializados.
Autor/a: Rachel Helena Webb, Cameron Grant, Anthony Harnden Fuente: BMJ 2015;351:h3443 Acute rheumatic fever
INDICE:  1.  | 2. Referencias
Referencias

1 Carapetis J, Steer A, Mulholland K, et al. The global burden of group A streptococcal diseases. Lancet Infect Dis 2005;5:685-94.
2 Zuhlke L, Steer A. Estimates of the global burdern of rheumatic heart disease. Global Heart 2013;8:189-95.
3 Wilson NJ, Voss L, Morreau J, et al. New Zealand guidelines for the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever: small increase in the incidence of definite cases compared to the American Heart Association Jones criteria. N Z Med J 2013;126:50-9.
4 Veasy LG, Tani LY, Hill HR. Persistence of acute rheumatic fever in the intermountain area of the United States. J Pediatr 1994;124:9-16.
5 Majeed HA, Batnager S, Yousof AM, et al. Acute rheumatic fever and the evolution of rheumatic heart disease: a prospective 12 year follow-up report. J Clin Epidemiol1992;45:871-5.
6 Voss LM, Wilson NJ, Neutze JM, et al. Intravenous immunoglobulin in acute rheumatic fever: a randomized controlled trial. Circulation 2001;103:401-6.
7 Caldas AM, Terreri MT, Moises VA, et al. What is the true frequency of carditis in acute rheumatic fever? A prospective clinical and Doppler blind study of 56 children with up to 60 months of follow-up evaluation. Pediatr Cardiol 2008;29:1048-53.
8 Zühlke L, Engel ME, Karthikeyan G, et al. Characteristics, complications, and gaps in evidence-based interventions in rheumatic heart disease: the Global Rheumatic Heart Disease Registry (the REMEDY study). Eur Heart J 2015;36:1115-22.
9 Okello E, Wanzhu Z, Musoke C, et al. Cardiovascular complications in newly diagnosed rheumatic heart disease patients at Mulago Hospital, Uganda. Cardiovasc J Afr 2013;24:80-5.
10 Cunningham MW. Rheumatic fever revisited. Nat Rev Cardiol 2014;11:122-3.
11 Cunningham MW. Rheumatic fever, autoimmunity, and molecular mimicry: the streptococcal connection. Int Rev Immunol 2014;33:314-29.
12 Jaine R, Baker M, Venugopal K. Epidemiology of acute rheumatic fever in New Zealand 1996-2005. J Paediatr Child Health 2008;44:564-71.
13 Lawrence JG, Carapetis JR, Griffiths K, et al. Acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease: incidence and progression in the Northern Territory of Australia, 1997 to 2010. Circulation 2013;128:492-501.
14 Ralph A, Jacups S, McGough K, et al. The challenge of acute rheumatic fever diagnosis in a high-incidnce population: a prospective study and proposed guidelines for diagnosis in Australia’s Northern Territory. Heart Lung Circ 2006;15:113-8.
15 Tibazarwa KB, Volmink JA, Mayosi BM. Incidence of acute rheumatic fever in the world: a systematic review of population-based studies. Heart 2008;94:1534-40.
16 Veasy LG, Tani LY, Daly JA, et al. Temporal association of the appearance of mucoid strains of Streptococcus pyogenes with a continuing high incidence of rheumatic fever in Utah. Pediatrics 2004;113:e168-72.
17 Kaplan EL, Markowitz M. Rheumatic fever in the United States: no longer a disease of the past. N Z Med J 1988;101:402-4.
18 Nkgudi B, Robertson KA, Volmink J, et al. Notification of rheumatic fever in South Africa—evidence for underreporting by health care professionals and administrators. S Afr Med J 2006;96:206-8.
19 Beaton A, Okello E, Lwabi P, et al. Echocardiography screening for rheumatic heart disease in Ugandan schoolchildren. Circulation 2012;125:3127-32.
20 Bhaya M, Panwar S, Beniwal R, et al. High prevalence of rheumatic heart disease detected by echocardiography in school children. Echocardiography 2010;27:448-53.
21 Marijon E, Ou P, Celermajer DS, et al. Prevalence of rheumatic heart disease detected by echocardiographic screening. N Engl J Med 2007;357:470-6.
22 Sharma S. Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in India. J Indian Med Assoc 2009;107:611-3.
23 Carapetis JR, Hardy M, Fakakovikaetau T, et al. Evaluation of a screening protocol using auscultation and portable echocardiography to detect asymptomatic rheumatic heart disease in Tongan schoolchildren. Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med 2008;5:411-7.
24 Steer AC, Kado J, Wilson N, et al. High prevalence of rheumatic heart disease by clinical and echocardiographic screening among children in Fiji. J Heart Valve Dis 2009;18:327-35,36.
25 Webb RH, Wilson NJ, Lennon DR, et al. Optimising echocardiographic screening for rheumatic heart disease in New Zealand: not all valve disease is rheumatic. Cardiol Young 2011;21:436-43.
26 Roberts K, Maguire G, Brown A, et al. Echocardiographic screening for rheumatic heart disease in high and low risk Australian children. Circulation 2014;129:1953-61.
27 Engel ME, Stander R, Vogel J, et al. Genetic susceptibility to acute rheumatic fever: a systematic review and meta-analysis of twin studies. PloS One 2011;6:e25326.
28 Bryant PA, Robins-Browne R, Carapetis JR, et al. Some of the people, some of the time: susceptibility to acute rheumatic fever. Circulation 2009;119:742-53.
29 Bessen DE, Carapetis JR, Beall B, et al. Contrasting molecular epidemiology of group A streptococci causing tropical and nontropical infections of the skin and   throat. J Infect Dis 2000;182:1109-16.
30 Jaine R, Baker M, Venugopal K. Acute rheumatic fever associated with household crowding in a developed country. Pediatr Infec Dis J 2011;30:315-9.
31 Milne RJ, Lennon DR, Stewart JM, et al. Incidence of acute rheumatic fever in New Zealand children and youth. J Paediatr Child Health 2012;48:685-91.
32 Mayosi B. The RHDGen Network: Genetics of rheumatic heart disease and molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus pyogenes pharyngitis. 2015. http://h3africa.org/consortium/projects/16-projects/65-the-rhdgen-network-genetics-of-rheumatic-heart-disease-andmolecular-epidemiology-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-pharyngitis.
33 Dajani AS, Ayoub E, Bierman FZ, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis of rheumatic fever: Jones criteria, 1992 update. JAMA 1992;268:2069-73.
34 Gewitz MH, Baltimore RS, Tani LY, et al. Revision of the Jones criteria for the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever in the era of doppler echocardiography: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2015;131:1806-18.
35 Jones T. The diagnosis of rheumatic fever. JAMA 1944;126:481-4.
36 RHDAustralia. The Australian guideline for the prevention, diagnosis and management of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease . 2nd ed. 2012. www.rhdaustralia.org.au/resources/arf-rhd-guideline.
37 Heart Foundation. New Zealand guidelines for rheumatic fever. Diagnosis, management and secondary prevention of acute  rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease: 2014update. 2014 . www.heartfoundation.org.nz/uploads/HF2227A_Rheumatic_Fever_Guideline_v1-complete.pdf.
38 Edwards WD, Peterson K, Edwards JE. Active valvulitis associated with chronic rheumatic valvular disease and active myocarditis. Circulation 1978;57:181-5.
39 Wilson NJ, Neutze JM. Echocardiographic diagnosis of subclincal carditis in acute rheumatic fever. Int J Cardiol 1995;50:1-6.
40 Ozkutlu S, Hallioglu O, Ayabakan C. Evaluation of subclinical valvar disease in patients with rheumatic fever. Cardiol Young 2003;13:495-9.
41 Folger GM Jr, Hajar R, Robida A, et al. Occurrence of valvar heart disease in acute rheumatic fever without evident carditis: colour-flow Doppler identification. Br Heart J 1992;67:434-8.
42 Figueroa FE, Fernandez MS, Valdes P, et al. Prospective comparison of clinical and echocardiographic diagnosis of rheumatic carditis: long term follow up of patients with subclinical disease. Heart 2001;85:407-10.
43 Abernethy M, Bass N, Sharpe N, et al. Doppler echocardiography and the early diagnosis of carditis in acute rheumatic fever. Aust N Z J Med 1994;24:530-5.
44 Carapetis JR, Currie BJ. Rheumatic fever in a high incidence population: the importance of monoarthritis and low grade fever. Arch Dis Child 2001;85:223-7.
45 Wilson E, Wilson N, Voss L, et al. Monoarthritis in rheumatic fever? Pediatr Infect Dis J 2007;26:369-70.
46 Seckeler MD, Hoke TR. The worldwide epidemiology of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. Clin Epidemiol 2011;3:67-84.
47 Carapetis JR, Currie BJ. Rheumatic chorea in northern Australia: a clinical and epidemiological study. Arch Dis Child 1999;80:353-8.
48 Panamonta M, Chaikitpinyo A, Kaplan EL, et al. The relationship of carditis to the initial attack of Sydenham’s chorea. Int J Cardiol 2004;94:241-8.
49 Walker AR, Tani LY, Thompson JA, et al. Rheumatic chorea: relationship to systemic manifestations and response to corticosteroids. J Pediatr 2007;151:679-83.
50 Bitar FF, Hayek P, Obeid M, et al. Rheumatic fever in children: a 15-year experience in a developing country. Pediatr Cardiol 2000;21:119-22.
51 Grassi A, Fesslova V, Carnelli V, et al. Clinical characteristics and cardiac outcome of acute rheumatic fever in Italy in the last 15 years. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2009;27:366-72.
52 Tompkins DG, Boxerbaum B, Liebman J. Long-term prognosis of rheumatic fever patients receiving regular intramuscular benzathine penicillin. Circulation 1972;45:543-51.
53 Feinstein AR, Wood HF, Spagnuolo M, et al. Rheumatic fever in children and adolescents: a long-term epidemiologic study of subsequent prophylaxis, streptococcal infections, and clinical sequelae. VII. Cardiac changes and sequelae. Ann Intern Med 1964;60(suppl 5):87-123.
54 Dajani A, Taubert K, Ferrieri P, et al. Treatment of acute streptococcal pharyngitis and prevention of rheumatic fever: a statement for health professionals. Pediatrics 1995;96:758-64.
55 Manyemba J, Mayosi BM. Intramuscular penicillin is more effective than oral penicillin in secondary prevention of rheumatic fever—a systematic review. S Afr Med J 2003;93:212-8.
56 Manyemba J, Mayosi BM. Penicillin for secondary prevention of rheumatic fever. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002;(3):CD002227
57 Sanyal SK, Berry AM, Duggal S, et al. Sequelae of the initial attack of acute rheumatic fever in children from north India. A prospective 5-year follow-up study. Circulation 1982;65:375-9.
58 World Health Organization. Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease: report of WHO expert consultation. WHO, 2004:923.
59 Lue H-C, Wu M-H, Wang J-K, et al. Long-term outcome of patients with rheumatic fever
receiving benzathine penicillin G prophylaxis every three weeks versus every four weeks. J Pediatr 1994;125:812-6.
60 Spinetto H, Lennon D, Horsburgh M. Rheumatic fever recurrence prevention: a nurse-led programme of 28-day penicillin in an area of high endemnicity. J Paediatr Child Health 2011;47:228-34.
61 Russell K, Nicholson R, Naidu R. Reducing the pain of intramuscular benzathine penicillin injections in the rheumatic fever population of Counties Manukau District Health Board. J Paediatr Child Health 2014;50:112-7.
62 Cilliers AM, Manyemba J, Saloojee H. Anti-inflammatory treatment for carditis in acute rheumatic fever. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003;(2):CD003176.
63 Taran LM. Treatment of acute rheumatic fever and acute rheumatic heart disease. Am J Med 1947;2:285-95.
64 Al Kasab S, al Fagih MR, Shahid M, et al. Valve surgery in acute rheumatic heart disease. one- to four-year follow-up. Chest 1988;94:830-3.
65 Remenyi B, Webb R, Gentles T, et al. Improved long-term survival for rheumatic mitral valve repair compared to replacement in the young. World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg 2013;4:155-64.
66 Walker KG, Wilmshurst JM. An update on the treatment of Sydenham’s chorea: the evidence for established and evolving interventions. Ther Adv Neurol Disord 2010;3:301-9.
67 Daoud ASM, Zaki MM, Shakir RF, et al. Effectiveness of sodium valproate in the treatment of Sydenham’s chorea. Neurology 1990;40:1140-1.
68 Genel F, Arslanoglu S, Uran N, et al. Sydenham’s chorea: clinical findings and comparison of the efficacies of sodium valproate and carbamazepine regimens. Brain Dev 2002;24:73-6.
69 Peña J, Mora E, Cardozo J, et al. Comparison of the efficacy of carbamazepine, haloperidol and valproic acid in the treatment of children with Sydenham´s chorea: clinical follow-up of 18 patients. Arquivos Neuro-Psiquiatria 2002;60:374-7.
70 Garvey MA, Snider LA, Leitman SF, et al. Treatment of Sydenham’s chorea with intravenous immunoglobulin, plasma exchange, or prednisone. J Child Neurol 2005;20:424-9.
71 Hashkes PJ, Tauber T, Somekh E, et al. Naproxen as an alternative to aspirin for the treatment of arthritis of rheumatic fever: a randomized trial. J Pediatr 2003;143:399-401.
72 Vasan RS, Shrivastava S, Vijayakumar M, et al. Echocardiographic evaluation of patients with acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic carditis. Circulation 1996;94:73-82.
73 Sadler L, McCowan L, White H, et al. Pregnancy outcomes and cardiac complications in women with mechanical, bioprosthetic and homograft valves. BJOG 2000;107:245-53.
74 Carapetis JR, Currie BJ. Mortality due to acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in the Northern Territory: a preventable cause of death in aboriginal people. Aust N Z J Public Health 1999;23:159-63.
75 Webb R, Voss L, Roberts S, et al. Infective endocarditis in New Zealand children 1994-2012. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2014;33:437-42.
76 Infective Endocarditis Prophylaxis Experts Group. Prevention of endocarditis. 2008 Update. In: Therapeutic Guidelines: antibiotic. Version 13. 2008.
77 National Heart Foundation of New Zealand Advisory Group. Prevention of infective endocarditis associated with dental and other medical interventions . 2008. www.ttophs.govt.nz/vdb/document/312.
78 Wilson W, Taubert KA, Gewitz M, et al. Prevention of infective endocarditis: guidelines from the American Heart Association: a guideline from the American Heart Association Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease Committee, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group. Circulation 2007;116:1736-54.
79 Richey R, Wray D, Stokes T. Prophylaxis against infective endocarditis: summary of NICE guidance. BMJ 2008;336:770-1.
80 Remenyi B, Wilson N, Steer A, et al. World Heart Federation criteria for echocardiographic diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease—an evidence-based guideline. Nat Rev Cardiol2012;9:297-309.
81 Paar JA, Berrios NM, Rose JD, et al. Prevalence of rheumatic heart disease in children and young adults in Nicaragua. Am J Cardiol 2010;105:1809-14.
82 Roberts K, Colquhoun S, Steer A, et al. Screening for rheumatic heart disease: current approaches and controversies. Nat Rev Cardiol 2013;10:49-58.
83 Dale JB, Fischetti VA, Carapetis JR, et al. Group A streptococcal vaccines: paving a path for accelerated development. Vaccine 2013;31(suppl 2):B216-22.
84 Moreland NJ, Waddington CS, Williamson DA, et al. Working towards a group A streptococcal vaccine: report of a collaborative trans-Tasman workshop. Vaccine2014;32:3713-20.
85 Lennon DF, Stewart JM, Farrell EM, et al. School-based prevention of acute rheumatic fever: a group randomized trial in New Zealand. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2009;28:787-94.
86 Lennon D, Kerdemelidis M, Arroll B. Meta-analysis of trials of streptococcal throat treatment programs to prevent rheumatic fever. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2009;28:e259-64.
87 Kerdemelidis M, Lennon D, Arroll B, et al. Guidelines for sore throat management in New Zealand. N Z Med J 2009;122:10-8.
88 Karthikeyan G, Zuhlke L, Engel M, et al. Rationale and design of a global rheumatic heart disease registry: the REMEDY study. Am Heart J 2012;163:535-40.e1.
89 Riaz BK, Selim S, Karim MN, et al. Risk factors of rheumatic heart disease in Bangladesh: a case-control study. J Health Popul Nutr 2013;31:70-7

 

Comentarios

Para ver los comentarios de sus colegas o para expresar su opinión debe ingresar con su cuenta de IntraMed.

AAIP RNBD
Términos y condiciones de uso | Todos los derechos reservados | Copyright 1997-2023