Su fisiología y consecuencias clínicas (primera parte) | 18 MAY 15

Menopausia: una puesta al día en profundidad

La menopausia, una condición que afecta a todas las mujeres, no recibe en la actualidad los fondos suficientes por lo que es poco investigada. El péndulo ha oscilado entre el entusiasmo hasta la eliminación de varias terapias hormonales eficaces. Esta es una revisión en profundidad actualizada según las evidencias actuales.
Autor/a: Susan R. Davis, Irene Lambrinoudaki, Maryann Lumsden, Gita D. Mishra, Lubna Pal, Margaret Rees, Nanette Santoro y Tommaso Simoncini Fuente: Menopause. Disease Primers Volume 1 | 2015 | 1 Nature Menopause
INDICE:  1.  | 2. Referencias
Referencias

1.Soules, M. R. et al. Executive summary: 1.Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW). Fertil. Steril. 76, 874–878 (2001).
2. Harlow, S. D. et al. Executive summary of the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop + 10: addressing the unfinished agenda of staging reproductive aging. Menopause 19, 387–395 (2012).
3. Harlow, S. et al. Executive summary of the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop + 10: addressing the unfinished agenda of staging reproductive aging. Fertil. Steril. 97, 843–851 (2012).
4. Harlow, S. D. et al. Executive summary of the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop +10: addressing the unfinished agenda of staging reproductive aging. Climacteric 15, 105–114 (2012).
5. Harlow, S. D. et al. Executive summary of the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop + 10: addressing the unfinished agenda of staging reproductive aging. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metabolism 97, 1159–1168 (2012).
6. Jane, F. M. & Davis, S. R. A practitioner’s toolkit for managing the menopause. Climacteric 17, 1–16 (2014).
7. Tom, S. E. & Mishra, G. D. Current Topics in Menopause: a Life Course Approach to Reproductive Aging (Bentham Science Publishers Ltd., 2013).
8. Schoenaker, D. A., Jackson, C. A., Rowlands, J. V. & Mishra, G. D. Socioeconomic position, lifestyle factors and age at natural menopause: a systematic review and meta-analyses of studies across six continents. Int. J. Epidemiol. 43, 1542–1562 (2014).
Este ensayo brinda una perspective global de los factores asociados con la edad de la menopausia.
9. Dratva, J. et al. Is age at menopause increasing across Europe? Results on age at menopause and determinants from two population-based studies. Menopause 16, 385–394 (2009).
10. Flint, M. P. Secular trends in menopause age. J. Psychosomat. Obstetr. Gynaecol. 18, 65–72 (1997).
11. Flint, M. Is there a secular trend in age of menopause? Maturitas 1, 133–139 (1978).
12. Nichols, H. B. et al. From menarche to menopause: trends among US Women born from 1912 to 1969. Am. J. Epidemiol. 164, 1003–1011 (2006).
13. Rodstrom, K. et al. Evidence for a secular trend in menopausal age: a population study of women in Gothenburg. Menopause 10, 538–543 (2003).
14. McKinlay, S. M., Brambilla, D. J. & Posner, J. G. The normal menopause transition. Maturitas 61, 4–16 (2008).
15. Mishra, G. D. & Dobson, A. J. Using longitudinal profiles to characterize women’s symptoms through midlife: results from a large prospective study. Menopause 19, 549–555 (2012).
16. Gartoulla, P., Islam, M. R., Bell, R. J. & Davis, S. R. Prevalence of menopausal symptoms in Australian women at midlife: a systematic review. Climacteric 17, 529–539 (2014).
17. Mishra, G. & Kuh, D. Perceived change in quality of life during the menopause. Social Sci. Med. 62, 93–102 (2006).
18. Utian, W. H. Psychosocial and socioeconomic burden of vasomotor symptoms in menopause: a comprehensive review. Health Qual. Life Outcomes 3, 47 (2005).
19. Thurston, R. C. & Joffe, H. Vasomotor symptoms and menopause: findings from the Study of Women’s Health across the Nation. Obstetr. Gynecol. Clin. North Amer. 38, 489–501 (2011).
20. Gold, E. B. et al. Longitudinal analysis of the association between vasomotor symptoms and race/ ethnicity across the menopausal transition: study of women’s health across the nation. Am. J. Publ. Health 96, 1226–1235 (2006).
21. Freeman, E. W. et al. Association of anti-mullerian hormone levels with obesity in late reproductive-age women. Fertil. Steril. 87, 101–106 (2007).
22. Islam, M. R., Gartoulla, P., Bell, R. J., Fradkin, P. & Davis, S. R. Prevalence of menopausal symptoms in Asian midlife women: a systematic review. Climacteric 1–42 (2014).
23. Mishra, G. D. & Kuh, D. Health symptoms during midlife in relation to menopausal transition: British prospective cohort study. BMJ 344, e402 (2012).
24. Colditz, G. A. et al. Menopause and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. N. Engl. J. Med. 316, 1105–1110 (1987).
25. Anasti, J. N., Kalantaridou, S. N., Kimzey, L. M., Defensor, R. A. & Nelson, L. M. Bone loss in young women with karyotypically normal spontaneous premature ovarian failure. Obstet. Gynecol. 91, 12–15 (1998).
Este ensayo demuestra las variadas trayectorias de los síntomas asociados a la menopausia.
26. Kalantaridou, S. N., Davis, S. R. & Nelson, L. M. Premature ovarian failure. Endocrinol. Metabolism Clin. North Amer. 27, 989–1006 (1998).
27. Kok, H. S. et al. Heart disease risk determines menopausal age rather than the reverse. J. Am. College Cardiol. 47, 1976–1983 (2006).
28. Ossewaarde, M. E. et al. Age at menopause, cause-specific mortality and total life expectancy. Epidemiology 16, 556–562 (2005).
29. Mondul, A. M., Rodriguez, C., Jacobs, E. J. & Calle, E. E. Age at natural menopause and cause-specific mortality. Am. J. Epidemiol. 162, 1089–1097 (2005).
30. Kok, H. S., van, A. K. M., van, d. S. Y. T., Peeters, P. H. & Wijmenga, C. Genetic studies to identify genes underlying menopausal age. Hum. Reprod. Update 11, 483–493 (2005).
31. van Asselt, K. M. et al. Heritability of menopausal age in mothers and daughters. Fertil. Steril. 82, 1348–1351 (2004).
32. Murabito, J. M., Yang, O., Fox, C., Wilson, P. W. & Cupples, L. A. Heritability of age at natural menopause in the Framingham Heart Study. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 90, 3427–3430 (2005).
33. Torgerson, D. J., Thomas, R. E. & Reid, D. M. Mothers and daughters menopausal ages: is there a link? Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 74, 63–66 (1997).
34. Cramer, D. W., Xu, H. & Harlow, B. L. Family history as a predictor of early menopause. Fertil. Steril. 64, 740–745 (1995).
35. de, B. J. P. et al. The role of genetic factors in age at natural menopause. Hum. Reprod. 16, 2014–2018 (2001).
36. Mishra, G., Hardy, R. & Kuh, D. Are the effects of risk factors for timing of menopause modified by age? Results from a British birth cohort study. Menopause 14, 717–724 (2007).
37. Voorhuis, M., Onland-Moret, N. C., van der Schouw, Y. T., Fauser, B. C. & Broekmans, F. J. Human studies on genetics of the age at natural menopause: a systematic review. Hum. Reprod. Update 16, 364–377 (2010).
38. van Asselt, K. M. et al. Linkage analysis of extremely discordant and concordant sibling pairs identifies quantitative trait loci influencing variation in human menopausal age. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 74, 444–453 (2004).
39. Murabito, J. M., Yang, Q., Fox, C. S. & Cupples, L. A. Genome-wide linkage analysis to age at natural menopause in a community-based sample: the Framingham Heart Study. Fertil. Steril. 84, 1674–1679 (2005).
40. Lin, W. T. et al. Comparison of age at natural menopause in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with a non-clinic based sample of women in northern California. Cancer 119, 1652–1659 (2013).
41. Watkins, W. J. et al. An investigation into FOXE1 polyalanine tract length in premature ovarian failure. Mol. Hum. Reprod. 12, 145–149 (2006).
42. Chand, A. L., Ponnampalam, A. P., Harris, S. E., Winship, I. M. & Shelling, A. N. Mutational analysis of BMP15 and GDF9 as candidate genes for premature ovarian failure. Fertil. Steril. 86, 1009–1012 (2006).
43. Ferrarini, E. et al. Clinical characteristics and genetic analysis in women with premature ovarian insufficiency. Maturitas 74, 61–67 (2013).
Este es un resumen complete de la insuficiencia ovárica primaria.
44. Cramer, D. W., Harlow, B. L., Barbieri, R. L. & Ng, W. G. Galactose 1 phosphate uridyl transferase activity associated with age at menopause and reproductive history. Fertil. Steril. 51, 609–615 (1989).
45. Kaufman, F. R., Devgan, S. & Donnell, G. N. Results of a survey of carrier women for the galactosemia gene. Fertil. Steril. 60, 727–728 (1993).
46. Nelson, L. M. Clinical practice. Primary ovarian insufficiency. N. Engl. J. Med. 360, 606–614 (2009).
47. He, C. et al. Genome-wide association studies identify loci associated with age at menarche and age at natural menopause. Nat. Genet. 41, 724–728 (2009).
48. Stolk, L. et al. Loci at chromosomes 13, 19 and 20 influence age at natural menopause. Nat. Genet. 41, 645–647 (2009).
49. Elks, C. E. et al. Thirty new loci for age at menarche identified by a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies. Nat. Genet. 42, 1077–1085 (2010).
50. Stolk, L. et al. Meta-analyses identify 13 loci associated with age at menopause and highlight DNA repair and immune pathways. Nat. Genet. 44, 260–268 (2012).
51. Nejat, E. J. & Chervenak, J. L. The continuum of ovarian aging and clinicopathologies associated with the menopausal transition. Maturitas 66, 187–190 (2010).
52. Broekmans, F. J., Soules, M. R. & Fauser, B. C. Ovarian aging: mechanisms and clinical consequences. Endocr. Rev. 30, 465–493 (2009).
53. Burger, H. G., Hale, G. E., Robertson, D. M. & Dennerstein, L. A review of hormonal changes during the menopausal transition: focus on findings from the Melbourne Women’s Midlife Health Project. Hum. Reprod. Update 13, 559–565 (2007).
54. Wise, P. M. Neuroendocrine modulation of the “menopause”: insights into the aging brain. Am. J. Physiol. 277, E965–E970 (1999).
55. Downs, J. L. & Wise, P. M. The role of the brain in female reproductive aging. Mol. Cell Endocrinol. 299, 32–38 (2009).
56. Butler, L. & Santoro, N. The reproductive endocrinology of the menopausal transition. Steroids 76, 627–635 (2011).
57. Santoro, N. et al. Impaired folliculogenesis and ovulation in older reproductive aged women. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88, 5502–5509 (2003).
58. Archer, D. F. et al. Menopausal hot flushes and night sweats: where are we now? Climacteric 14, 515–528 (2011).
59. Freeman, E. W., Sammel, M. D., Lin, H., Liu, Z. & Gracia, C. R. Duration of menopausal hot flushes and associated risk factors. Obstet. Gynecol. 117, 1095–1104 (2011).
60. Gjelsvik, B., Rosvold, E. O., Straand, J., Dalen, I. & Hunskaar, S. Symptom prevalence during menopause and factors associated with symptoms and menopausal age. Results from the Norwegian Hordaland Women’s Cohort study. Maturitas 70, 383–390 (2011).
61. Richard-Davis, G. & Wellons, M. Racial and ethnic differences in the physiology and clinical symptoms of menopause. Semin. Reprod. Med. 31, 380–386 (2013).
62. Duffy, O. K., Iversen, L., Aucott, L. & Hannaford, P. C. Factors associated with resilience or vulnerability to hot flushes and night sweats during the menopausal transition. Menopause 20, 383–392 (2013).
63. Zervas, I. M. et al. Additive effect of depressed mood and vasomotor symptoms on postmenopausal insomnia. Menopause 16, 837–842 (2009).
64. Al Safi, Z. A. & Santoro, N. Menopausal hormone therapy and menopausal symptoms. Fertil. Steril. 101, 905–915 (2014).
65. Vivian-Taylor, J. & Hickey, M. Menopause and depression: is there a link? Maturitas 79, 142–146 (2014).
66. Bay-Jensen, A. C. et al. Role of hormones in cartilage and joint metabolism: understanding an unhealthy metabolic phenotype in osteoarthritis. Menopause 20, 578–586 (2013).
67. Blumel, J. E. et al. Menopause could be involved in the pathogenesis of muscle and joint aches in mid-aged women. Maturitas 75, 94–100 (2013).
68. Nappi, R. E. & Kokot-Kierepa, M. Vaginal Health: Insights, Views and Attitudes (VIVA) - results from an international survey. Climacteric 15, 36–44 (2012).
69. Portman, D. J. & Gass, M. L. Genitourinary syndrome of menopause: new terminology for vulvovaginal atrophy from the International Society for the Study of Women’s Sexual Health and The North American Menopause Society. Menopause 21, 1063–1068 (2014).
70. Nappi, R. E. & Palacios, S. Impact of vulvovaginal atrophy on sexual health and quality of life at postmenopause. Climacteric 17, 3–9 (2014).
71. Avis, N. E. et al. Longitudinal changes in sexual functioning as women transition through menopause: results from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Menopause 16, 442–452 (2009).
72. Boyle, W. J., Simonet, W. S. & Lacey, D. L. Osteoclast differentiation and activation. Nature 423, 337–342 (2003).
73. Tella, S. H. & Gallagher, J. C. Prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 142, 155–170 (2014).
74. Khosla, S. Pathogenesis of age-related bone loss in humans. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 68, 1226–1235 (2013).
Este ensayo ilustra los mecanismo de la pérdida de hueso posmenopáusica.
75. Clarke, B. L. & Khosla, S. Physiology of bone loss. Radiol Clin. North Am. 48, 483–495 (2010).
76. Sapir-Koren, R. & Livshits, G. Is interaction between age-dependent decline in mechanical stimulation and osteocyte-estrogen receptor levels the culprit for postmenopausal-impaired bone formation? Osteoporos. Int. 24, 1771–1789 (2013).
77. Shuster, L. T., Rhodes, D. J., Gostout, B. S., Grossardt, B. R. & Rocca, W. A. Premature menopause or early menopause: long-term health consequences. Maturitas 65, 161–166 (2010).
78. Davis, S. R. et al. Understanding weight gain at menopause. Climacteric 15, 419–429 (2012).
79. Tchernof, A. & Despres, J. P. Pathophysiology of human visceral al obesity: an update. Physiol. Rev. 93, 359–404 (2013).
80. Barton, M. Cholesterol and atherosclerosis: modulation by oestrogen. Curr. Opin. Lipidol 24, 214–220 (2013).
81. Chedraui, P. et al. Angiogenesis, inflammation and endothelial function in postmenopausal women screened for the metabolic syndrome. Maturitas 77, 370–374 (2014).
82. Chedraui, P. et al. Circulating leptin, resistin, adiponectin, visfatin, adipsin and ghrelin levels and insulin resistance in postmenopausal women with and without the metabolic syndrome. Maturitas 79, 86–90 (2014).
83. Hage, F. G. & Oparil, S. Ovarian hormones and vascular disease. Curr. Opin. Cardiol 28, 411–416 (2013).
Este artículo describe los mecanismos de vasoprotección de los estrógenos endógenos y el desarrollo de la enfermedad cardiovascular en la menopausia.
84. Abramson, B. L. & Melvin, R. G. Cardiovascular risk in women: focus on hypertension. Can. J. Cardiol 30, 553–559 (2014).
85. El Khoudary, S. R. et al. Progression rates of carotid intima-media thickness and adventitial diameter during the menopausal transition. Menopause 20, 8–14 (2013).
86. Hildreth, K. L., Kohrt, W. M. & Moreau, K. L. Oxidative stress contributes to large elastic arterial stiffening across the stages of the menopausal transition. Menopause 21, 624–632 (2014).
87. Moreau, K. L., Hildreth, K. L., Meditz, A. L., Deane, K. D. & Kohrt, W. M. Endothelial function is impaired across the stages of the menopause transition in healthy women. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 97, 4692–4700 (2012).
88. Stamatelopoulos, K. S. et al. Recently postmenopausal women have the same prevalence of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis as age and traditional risk factor matched men. Atherosclerosis 221, 508–513 (2012).
89. Lobo, R. A. et al. Prevention of diseases after menopause. Climacteric 17, 540–556 (2014).
90. Lisabeth, L. & Bushnell, C. Stroke risk in women: the role of menopause and hormone therapy. Lancet Neurol. 11, 82–91 (2012).
91. Rocca, W. A., Grossardt, B. R., Miller, V. M., Shuster, L. T. & Brown, R. D. Jr. Premature menopause or early menopause and risk of ischemic stroke. Menopause 19, 272–277 (2012).
92. De Vos, M., Devroey, P. & Fauser, B. C. Primary ovarian insufficiency. Lancet 376, 911–921 (2010).
93. Wellons, M., Ouyang, P., Schreiner, P. J., Herrington, D. M. & Vaidya, D. Early menopause predicts future coronary heart disease and stroke: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Menopause 19, 1081–1087 (2012).
94. Luine, V. N. Estradiol and cognitive function: past, present and future. Horm. Behav. 66, 602–618 (2014).
95. Silva, I. & Naftolin, F. Brain health and cognitive and mood disorders in ageing women. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Obstet. Gynaecol. 27, 661–672 (2013).
96. Weber, M. T., Maki, P. M. & McDermott, M. P. Cognition and mood in perimenopause: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 142, 90–98 (2014).
97. de Villiers, T. J. et al. Updated 2013 International Menopause Society recommendations on menopausal hormone therapy and preventive strategies for midlife health. Climacteric 16, 316–337 (2013).
98. Henderson, V. W. Action of estrogens in the aging brain: dementia and cognitive aging. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1800, 1077–1083 (2010).
99. Hardy, R. & Kuh, D. Does early growth influence timing of the menopause? Evidence from a British birth cohort. Hum. Reprod. 17, 2474–2479 (2002).
100. Elias, S. G., van Noord, P. A., Peeters, P. H., den Tonkelaar, T. I. & Grobbee, D. E. Childhood exposure to the 1944–1945 Dutch famine and subsequent female reproductive function. Hum. Reprod. 20, 2483–2488 (2005).
101. Mishra, G. D., Cooper, R., Tom, S. E. & Kuh, D. Early life circumstances and their impact on menarche and menopause. Women’s Health 5, 175–190 (
102. Hardy, R., Mishra, G. & Kuh, D. in Menopause, Postmenopause and Aging. (eds Purdie, D. W. et al.) 11–19 (Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd London, 2005).
103. Do, K. A. et al. Predictive factors of age at menopause in a large Australian twin study. Hum. Biol. 70, 1073–1091 (1998).
104. Shinberg, D. S. An event history analysis of age at last menstrual period: correlates of natural and surgical menopause among midlife Wisconsin women. Social Sci. Med. 46, 1381–1396 (1998).
105. Torgerson, D. J., Avenell, A., Russell, I. T. & Reid, D. M. Factors associated with onset of menopause in women aged 45–49. Maturitas 19, 83–92 (1994).
106. Wise, L. A., Krieger, N., Zierler, S. & Harlow, B. L. Lifetime socioeconomic position in relation to onset of perimenopause. J. Epidemiol. Commun. Health 56, 851–860 (2002).
107. Castelo-Branco, C. et al. Age at menopause in Latin America. Menopause 13, 706–712 (2006).
108. Bromberger, J. T. et al. Prospective study of the determinants of age at menopause. Am. J. Epidemiol. 145, 124–133 (1997).
109. Hardy, R., Kuh, D. & Wadsworth, M. Smoking, body mass index, socioeconomic status and the menopausal transition in a British national cohort. Int. J. Epidemiol. 29, 845–851 (2000).
110. van Asselt, K. M. et al. Current smoking at menopause rather than duration determines the onset of natural menopause. Epidemiology 15, 634–639 (2004).
111. Discigil, G., Gemalmaz, A., Tekin, N. & Basak, O. Profile of menopausal women in west Anatolian rural region sample. Maturitas 55, 247–254 (2006).
112. Hardy, R. & Kuh, D. Reproductive characteristics and the age at inception of the perimenopause in a British National Cohort. Am. J. Epidemiol. 149, 612–620 (1999).
113. Gold, E. B. et al. Factors related to age at natural menopause: longitudinal analyses. Am. J. Epidemiol. 178, 70–83 (2013).
114. McKinlay, S. M., Bifano, N. L. & McKinlay, J. B. Smoking and age at menopause in women. Ann. Intern. Med. 103, 350–356 (1985).
115. Mikkelesen, T. F., Graff-Iverseon, S., Sundby, J. & Bjertness, E. Early menopause, association with tobacco smoking, coffee consumption and other lifestyle factors: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health 7, 149–167 (2007).
116. Mark-Kappeler, C. J., Hoyer, P. B. & Devine, P. J. Xenobiotic effects on ovarian preantral follicles. Biol. Reprod. 85, 871–883 (2011).
117. Plante, B. J., Cooper, G. S., Baird, D. D. & Steiner, A. Z. The impact of smoking on antimullerian hormone levels in women aged 38 to 50 years. Maturitas 17, 571–576 (2010).
118. Luoto, R., Laprio, J. & Uutela, A. Age at natural menopause and sociodemographic status in Finland. Am. J. Epidemiol. 139, 64–76 (1994).
119. Lawlor, D. A., Ebrahim, S. & Smith, G. D. The association of socio-economic position across the life course and age at menopause: teh British Women’s Heart and Health Study. BJOG 110, 1078–1087 (2003).
120. Schoenbaum, E. E. et al. HIV infection, drug use, and onset of natural menopause. Clin. Infect. Dis. 41, 1517–1524 (2005).
121. van Noord, P. A., Dubas, J. S., Dorland, M., Boersma, H. & te Velde, E. Age at natural menopause in a population-based screening cohort: the role of menarche, fecundity, and lifestyle factors. Fertil. Steril. 68, 95–102 (1997).
122. Akahoshi, M. et al. The effects of body mass index on age at menopause. International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 26, 961–968 (2002).
123. Sammel, M. D., Freeman, E. W., Liu, Z., Lin, H. & Guo, W. Factors that influence entry into stages of the menopausal transition. Menopause 16, 1218–1227 (2009).
124. Aydin, Z. D. Determinants of age at natural menopause in the Isparta Menopause and Health Study: premenopausal body mass index gain rate and episodic weight loss. Menopause 17, 494–505 (2010).
125. Sowers, M. R. et al. Genetic polymorphisms and obesity influence estradiol decline during the menopause. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf.) 74, 618–623 (2011).
126. Cohen, L. S., Soares, C. N., Vitonis, A. F., Otto, M. W. & Harlow, B. L. Risk for new onset of depression.study of moods and cycles. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 63, 385–390 (2006).
Este es el primer trabajo para hallar que la depresión de reciente comienzo se asocia específicamente con el final de la transición de la menopausia.
127. Bromberger, J. T. et al. Depressive symptoms during the menopausal transition: the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). J. Affect Disord. 103, 267–272 (2007).
128. Pastore, L. M., Carter, R. A., Hulka, B. S. & Wells, E. Self-reported urogenital symptoms in postmenopausal women: Women’s Health Initiative. Maturitas 49, 292–303 (2004).
129. Freeman, E. W., Sammel, M. D. & Sanders, R. J. Risk of long-term hot flashes after natural menopause: evidence from the Penn Ovarian Aging Study cohort. Menopause 21, 924–932 (2014).
130. Politi, M. C., Schleinitz, M. D. & Col, N. F. Revisiting the duration of vasomotor symptoms of menopause: a meta-analysis. J. Gen. Intern. Med. 23, 1507–1513 (2008).
131. Col, N. F., Guthrie, J. R., Politi, M. & Dennerstein, L. Duration of vasomotor symptoms in middle-aged women: a longitudinal study. Menopause 16, 453–457 (2009).
132. Kravitz, H. M. & Joffe, H. Sleep during the perimenopause: a SWAN story. Obstet. Gynecol. ClinNorth Am. 38, 567–586 (2011).
133. Freeman, E. W., Sammel, M. D., Lin, H. & Nelson, D. B. Associations of hormones and menopausal status with depressed mood in women with no history of depression. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 63, 375–382 (2006).
134. Wallace, R. B., Sherman, B. M., Bean, J. A., Treloar, A. E. & Schlabaugh, L. Probability of menopause with increasing duration of amenorrhea in middle-aged women. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 135, 1021–1024 (1979).
135. Burger, H. G., Dudley, E. C., Cui, J., Dennerstein, L. & Hopper, J. L. A prospective longitudinal study of serum testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and sex hormone-binding globulin levels through the menopause transition. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 85, 2832–2838 (2000).
136. Metcalf, M. G., D.Onald, R. A. & Livesey, J. H. Pituitary-ovarian function before, during and after the menopause: a longitudinal study. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf.) 17, 489–494 (1982).
137. Davison, S. L., Bell, R., Donath, S., Montalto, J. G. & Davis, S. R. Androgen levels in adult females: changes with age, menopause, and oophorectomy. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 90, 3847–3853 (2005).
138. Modi, D., Bhartiya, D. & Puri, C. Developmental expressionand cellular distribution of Mullerian inhibiting substance in the primate ovary. Reproduction 132, 443–453 (2006).
139. Sowers, M. R. et al. Anti-mullerian hormone and inhibin B in the defintion of ovarian aging and the menopause transition. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 93, 3478–3483 (2008).
140. Santoro, N. et al. Helping midlife women predict the onset of the final menses, SWAN, the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Menopause 14, 415–424 (2007).
141. Freeman, E. W., Sammel, M. D., Lin, H., Boorman, D. W. & Gracia, C. R. Contribution of the rate of change of antimullerian hormone in estimating time to menopause for late reproductive-age women. Fertil. Steril. 98, 1254–1259 (2012).
Este es el primer trabajo para examinar el valor de los niveles seriados de AMH en la predicción de la menopausia.
142. La Marca, A. et al. Anti-Mullerian hormone-based prediction model for a live birth in assisted reproduction. Reprod. Biomed. Online 22, 341–349 (2011).
143. Hansen, K. R., Craig, L. B., Zavy, M. T., Klein, N. A. & Soules, M. R. Ovarian primordial and nongrowing follicle counts according to the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW) staging system. Menopause 19, 164–171 (2012).
144. Crandall, C. J. et al. Osteoporosis screening in postmenopausal women 50 to 64 years old: comparison of US Preventive Services Task Force strategy and two traditional strategies in the Women’s Health Initiative. J. Bone Miner. Res. 29, 1661–1666 (2014).
145. Sowers, M. R. et al. Amount of bone loss in relation to time around the final menstrual period and follicle-stimulating hormone staging of the transmenopause. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metabolism 95, 2155–2162 (2010).
146. Hawker, G. et al. A clinical decision rule to enhance targeted bone mineral density testing in healthy mid-life women. Osteoporos Int. 23, 1931–1938 (2012).
147. Lim, L. S., Hoeksema, L. J. & Sherin, K. Screening for osteoporosis in the adult U. S. population: ACPM position statement on preventive practice. Am. J. Prev. Med. 36, 366–375 (2009).
148. Davis, S. R., Tan, A. & Bell, R. J. Targeted assessment of fracture risk in women at midlife. Osteoporos. Int. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00198-015-3046-9 (2015).
Este artículo ofrece un enfoque clínico para comprobar la validez del cribado en las mujeres de mediana edad utilizando la densitometría ósea.
149. Lenders, J. W. et al. Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 99, 1915–1942 (2014).
150. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edn (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
151. Bromberger, J. T. et al. Persistent mood symptoms in a multiethnic community cohort of pre- and perimenopausal women. Am. J. Epidemiol. 158, 347–356 (2003).
152. Morse, C. A., Dudley, E., Guthrie, J. & Dennerstein, L. Relationships between premenstrual complaints and perimenopausal experiences. J. Psychosom. Obstet. Gynaecol. 19, 182–191 (1998).
153. Holte, A. & Mikkelsen, A. The menopausal syndrome: a factor analytic replication. Maturitas 13, 193–203 (1991).
154. Tehrani, F. R., Solaymani-Dodaran, M., Tohidi, M., Gohari, M. R. & Azizi, F. Modeling age at menopause using serum concentration of anti-mullerian hormone. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 98, 729–735 (2013).
155. Dewailly, D. et al. The physiology and clinical utility of anti-Mullerian hormone in womeUpdate 20, 370–385 (2014).
156. Tran, N. D., Cedars, M. I. & Rosen, M. P. The role of anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) in assessing ovarian reserve. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 96, 3609–3614 (2011).
157. Sullivan, S. D., Welt, C. & Sherman, S. FMR1 and the continuum of primary ovarian insufficiency. Semin. Reprod. Med. 29, 299–307 (2011).
158. Spath, M. A. et al. Intra-individual stability over time of standardized anti-Mullerian hormone in FMR1 premutation carriers. Hum. Reprod. 26, 2185–2191 (2011).
159. Richardson, S. J., Senikas, V. & Nelson, J. F. Follicular depletion during the menopausal transition: evidence for accelerated loss and ultimate exhaustion. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 65, 1231–1237 (1987).
160. Woods, D. C., White, Y. A. & Tilly, J. L. Purification of oogonial stem cells from adult mouse and human ovaries: an assessment of the literature and a view toward the future. Reprod. Sci. 20, 7–15 (2013).
161. Hanna, C. B. & Hennebold, J. D. Ovarian germline stem cells: an unlimited source of oocytes? Fertil. Steril. 101, 20–30 (2014).
162. Yuan, J. et al. No evidence for neo-oogenesis may link to ovarian senescence in adult monkey. Stem Cells 31, 2538–2550 (2013).
163. de Villiers, T. J. et al. Global Consensus Statement on menopausal hormone therapy. Maturitas 74, 391–392 (2013).
164. Furness, S., Roberts, H., Marjoribanks, J. & Lethaby, A. Hormone therapy in postmenopausal women and risk of endometrial hyperplasia. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 8, CD000402 (2012).
165. Hall, E., Frey, B. N. & Soares, C. N. Non-hormonal treatment strategies for vasomotor symptoms: a critical review. Drugs 71, 287–304 (2011).
166. Borrelli, F. & Ernst, E. Alternative and complementary therapies for the menopause. Maturitas 66, 333–343 (2010).
Esta es una revision sistemática complete de la medicina altrnativa y complementaria para los síntomas de la menopausia.
167. Dunn, J. F., Nisula, B. C. & Rodboard, D. Transport of steroid hormones. Binding of 21 endogenous steroids to both testosterone-binding globulin and cortico-steroid-binding globulin in human plasma. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 53, 58–68 (1981).
168. Raisz, L. G. et al. Comparison of the effects of estrogen alone and estrogen plus androgen on biochemical markers of bone form and resorption in postmenopausal women. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81, 37–43 (1995).
169. Olie, V. et al. Hormone therapy and recurrence of venous thromboembolism among postmenopausal women. Menopause 18, 488–493 (2011).
170. Hoibraaten, E. et al. Increased risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism during hormone replacement therapy—results of the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled estrogen in venous thromboembolism trial (EVTET). Thromb. Haemost. 84, 961–967 (2000).
171. Liu, B. et al. Gallbladder disease and use of transdermal versus oral hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women: prospective cohort study. BMJ 337, a386 (2008).
172. Constantine, G., Graham, S., Portman, D. J., Rosen, R. C. & Kingsberg, S. A. Female sexual function improved with ospemifene in postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Climacteric http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13697137.2014.954996 (2014).
173. Wurz, G. T., Soe, L. H. & DeGregorio, M. W. Ospemifene, vulvovaginal atrophy, and breast cancer. Maturitas 74, 220–225 (2013).
174. Pinkerton, J. V. et al. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of bazedoxifene/conjugated estrogens for secondary outcomes including vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women by years since menopause in the Selective Estrogens, Menopause and Response to Therapy (SMART) trials. J. Womens Health (Larchmt) 23, 18–28 (2014).
175. Wierman, M. E. et al. Androgen therapy in women: a reappraisal: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 99, 3489–3510 (2014).
176. Davis, S. R. Cardiovascular and cancer safety of testosterone in women. Curr. Opin. Endocrinol. Diabetes Obes 18, 198–203 (2011).
177. Santen, R. J. Vaginal administration of estradiol: effects of dose, preparation and timing on plasma estradiol levels. Climacteric 17, 1–14 (2014).
178. Grodstein, F., Manson, J. E., Stampfer, M. J. & Rexrode, K. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and stroke: role of time since menopause and age at initiation of hormone therapy. Arch. Intern. Med. 168, 861–866 (2008).
179. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG committee opinion no. 556: Postmenopausal estrogen therapy: route of administration and risk of venous thromboembolism. Obstet. Gynecol. 121, 887–890 (2013).
180. Canonico, M. et al. Hormone therapy and venous thromboembolism among postmenopausal women: impact of the route of estrogen administration and progestogens: the ESTHER study. Circulation 115, 840–845 (2007).
181. Fournier, A. et al. Risks of endometrial cancer associated with different hormone replacement therapies in the E3N cohort, 1992–2008. Am. J. Epidemiol. 180, 508–517 (2014).
182. Manson, J. E. et al. Algorithm and mobile app for menopausal symptom management and hormone non-hormonal therapy decision making: a clinical decision-support tool from The North American Menopause Society. Menopause 22, 247–253 (2014).
183. Chin, J., Konje, J. C. & Hickey, M. Levonorgestrel intrauterine system for endometrial protection in women with breast cancer on adjuvant tamoxifen. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 4, CD007245 (2009).
184. Wan, Y. L. & Holland, C. The efficacy of levonorgestrel intrauterine systems for endometrial protection: a systematic review. Climacteric 14, 622–632 (2011).
185. Stearns, V. et al. Active tamoxifen metabolite plasma concentrations after coadministration of tamoxifen and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine. J. Natl Cancer Inst. 95, 1758–1764 (2003).
186. Lethaby, A. et al. Phytoestrogens for menopausal vasomotor symptoms. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 12, CD001395 (2013).
187. Rada, G. et al. Non-hormonal interventions for hot flushes in women with a history of breast cancer. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 9, CD004923 (2010).
188. Leach, M. J. & Moore, V. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga spp.) for menopausal symptoms. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 9, CD007244 (2012).
189. Laakmann, E., Grajecki, D., Doege, K., zu Eulenburg, C. & Buhling, K. J. Efficacy of Cimicifuga racemosa, Hypericum perforatum and Agnus castus in the treatment of climacteric complaints: a systematic review. Gynecol. Endocrinol. 28, 703–709 (2012).
18 | 2015 | VOLUME 1 www.nature.com/nrdp
190. Walega, D. R., Rubin, L. H., Banuvar, S., Shulman, L. P. & Maki, P. M. Effects of stellate ganglion block on vasomotor symptoms: findings from a randomized controlled clinical trial in postmenopausal women. Menopause 21, 807–814 (2014).
191. Sinha, A. & Ewies, A. A. Non-hormonal topical treatment of vulvovaginal atrophy: an up to date overview. Climacteric 16, 305–312 (2013).
192. Gartoulla, P., Worsley, R., Bell, R. J. & Davis, S. R. Moderate-severe vasomotor and sexual symptoms remain problematic for 60–65 year old women. Menopause http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ GME.0000000000000383 (2014).
193. Elavsky, S., Gonzales, J. U., Proctor, D. N., Williams, N. & Henderson, V. W. Effects of physical activity on vasomotor symptoms: examination using objective and subjective measures. Menopause 19, 1095–1103 (2012).
194. Daley, A. et al. The effectiveness of exercise as treatment for vasomotor menopausal symptoms: randomised controlled trial. BJOG 122, 565–575 (2015).
Este es un ensayo aleatorizado realizado en atención primaria que eximna los efectos del ejercicio sobre los síntomas de la menopausia . No halló ningún efecto y por lo tanto la recomendación de ejercicio por los prestadores como terapia de primera línea es cuestionable.
195. Babatunde, O. O., Forsyth, J. J. & Gidlow, C. J. A meta-analysis of brief high-impact exercises for enhancing bone health in premenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 23, 109–119 (2012).
196. Martyn St James, M. & Carroll, S. A meta-analysis of impact exercise on postmenopausal bone loss: the case for mixed loading exercise programmes. Br. J. Sports Med. 43, 898–908 (2009).
197. Tucker, L. A., Fosson, E., Bailey, B. W. & Lecheminant, J. D. Is the dose response relationship between body mass and hip bone mineral density in women influenced by diet, physical activity, or menopause? Am. J. Health Promot. 28, 325–327 (2013).
198. Newton, K. M. et al. Efficacy of yoga for vasomotor symptoms: a randomized controlled trial. Menopause 21, 339–346 (2014).
199. Portman, D. J., Bachmann, G. A. & Simon, J. A. Ospemifene, a novel selective estrogen receptor modulator for treating dyspareunia associated with postmenopausal vulvar and vaginal atrophy. Menopause 20, 623–630 (2013).
200. Avis, N. E. et al. Change in health-related quality of life over the menopausal transition in a multiethnic cohort of middle-aged women: Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Menopause 16, 860–869 (2009).
Este artículo discute el impact de la menopausia en la calidad de vida
201. Zollner, Y. F., Acquadro, C. & Schaefer, M. Literature review of instruments to assess health-related quality of life during and after menopause. Qual. Life Res. 14, 309–327 (2005).
202. Salpeter, S. R., Buckley, N. S., Liu, H. & Salpeter, E. E. The cost-effectiveness of hormone therapy in younger and older postmenopausal women. Am. J. Med. 122, 42–52.e2 (2009).
Este artículo refurza la importancia de la calidad de vida a nivel de la comunidad.
203. Utian, W. H. & Woods, N. F. Impact of hormone therapy on quality of life after menopause. Menopause 20, 1098–1105 (2013).
204. Archer, D. F. et al. Long-term safety of drospirenone-estradiol for hormone therapy: a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial. Menopause 12, 716–727 (2005).
205. Al Akoum, M. et al. Effects of Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort) on hot flashes and quality of life in perimenopausal women: a randomized pilot trial. Menopause 16, 307–314 (2009).
206. Kalay, A. E., Demir, B., Haberal, A., Kalay, M. & Kandemir, O. Efficacy of citalopram on climacteric symptoms. Menopause 14, 223–229 (2007).
207. Somunkiran, A., Erel, C. T., Demirci, F. & Senturk, M. L. The effect of tibolone versus 17β estradiol on climacteric symptoms in women with surgical menopause: a randomized, cross-over study. Maturitas 56, 61–68 (2007).
208. Utian, W. et al. Bazedoxifene/conjugated estrogens and quality of life in postmenopausal women. Maturitas 63, 329–335 (2009).
209. Wiklund, I. K., Mattsson, L. A., Lindgren, R. & Limoni, C. Effects of a standardized ginseng extract on quality of life and physiological parameters in symptomatic postmenopausal women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Swedish Alternative Med. Group. Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Res. 19, 89–99 (1999).
210. Hays, J. et al. Effects of estrogen plus progestin on health-related quality of life. N. Engl. J. Med. 348, 1839–1854 (2003).
211. Brunner, R. L. et al. Effects of conjugated equine estrogen on health-related quality of life in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: results from the Women’s Health Initiative randomized clinical trial. Arch. Internal Med. 165, 1976–1986 (2005).
212. Hlatky, M. A., Boothroyd, D., Vittinghoff, E., Sharp, P. & Whooley, M. A. Quality-of life and depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women after receiving hormone therapy: results from the Heart and Estrogen/ Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) trial. JAMA 287, 591–597 (2002).
213. Ylikangas, S., Sintonen, H. & Heikkinen, J. Decade-long use of continuous combined hormone replacement therapy is associated with better health-related quality of life in postmenopausal women, as measured by the generic 15D instrument. J. Br. Menopause Soc. 11, 145–151 (2005).
214. Zeleke, B. M., Davis, S. R., Fradkin, P. & Bell, R. J. Vasomotor symptoms and urogenital atrophy in older women: a systematic review. Climacteric http://dx.doi. org/10.3109/13697137.2014.978754 (2014).
215. Rossouw, J. et al. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the Women’s Health Initiative Randomised Controlled Trial. JAMA 288, 321–333 (2002).

 

Comentarios

Para ver los comentarios de sus colegas o para expresar su opinión debe ingresar con su cuenta de IntraMed.

AAIP RNBD
Términos y condiciones de uso | Todos los derechos reservados | Copyright 1997-2022