Recomendaciones para cada una de las disfunciones | 10 NOV 14

¿Cómo manejar a niños con parálisis cerebral?

Este artículo presenta una visión general de la parálisis cerebral pero se centra en los problemas comunes como la espasticidad, el dolor y las dificultades en la alimentación que afectan a un número sustancial de niños.
2
17
Autor/a: Mathew D Sewell, Deborah M. Eastwood, Neil Wimalasundera BMJ 2014; 349: g5474
INDICE:  1. Desarrollo | 2. Referencias bibliográficas
Referencias bibliográficas

1. Rosenbaum P, Paneth N, Leviton A, Goldstein M, Bax M. A report: the definition and classification of cerebral palsy April 2006. Dev Med Child Neurol 2007; 49 (s2):8-14.
2. Surman G, Bonellie S, Chalmers J, Colver A, Dolk H, Hemming K, et al. UKCP: a collaborative network of cerebral palsy registers in the United Kingdom. J Public Health 2006; 28:148-56.
3. Johnson A. Prevalence and characteristics of children with cerebral palsy in Europe. Dev Med Child Neurol 2002; 44:633-40.
4. Andersen GL, Irgens LM, Haagaas I, Skranes JS, Meberg AE, Vik T. Cerebral palsy in Norway: prevalence, subtypes and severity. Eur J Paed Neurol 2008; 12: 4-13.
5. Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe. A collaboration of cerebral palsy surveys and registers. Surveillance of cerebral palsy in Europe (SCPE). Dev Med Child Neurol 2000; 42: 816-24.
6. Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe. Prevalence and characteristics of children with cerebral palsy in Europe. Dev Med Child Neurol 2002; 44: 633-40.
7. Jarvis S, Glinianaia SV, Torrioli MG, Platt MJ, Miceli M, Jouk PS, et al. Cerebral palsy and intrauterine growth in single births: European collaborative study. Lancet 2003; 362:1106-11.
8. Report of the Australian Cerebral Palsy Register, birth years 1993-2006, Feb 2013.
9. Vohr BR, Wright LL, Poole WK, McDonald SA. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants <32 weeks gestation between 1993 and 1998. Pediatrics 2005; 116: 635-43.
10. Platt MJ, Cans C, Johnson A, Surman G, Topp M, Torrioli MG, et al. Trends in cerebral palsy among infants of very low birth weight (<1500g) or born prematurely (<32 weeks)min 16 European centers: a database study. Lancet 2007; 369: 43-50.
11. Hetzel BS. Iodine and neuropsychological development. J Nutr 2000; 130 (S2):S493-5.
12. Escobar GJ, Littenberg B, Petitti DB. Outcome among surviving very low birth weight infants: a meta-analysis. Arch Dis Child 1991; 66:204-11.
13. Krageloh-Mann I, Cans C. Cerebral palsy update. Brain Dev 2009; 31: 537-44.
14. Wu YW, Croen LA, Shah SJ, Newman TB, Najjar DV. Cerebral palsy in a term population: risk factors and neuroimaging findings. Pediatrics 2006; 118: 690-7.
15. Bundey S, Griffiths MA. Recurrence risks in families of children with symmetrical spasticity. Dev Med Child Neurol 1977; 19:179-91.
16. Hughes I, Newton R. Genetic aspects of cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 1992; 43:80-6.
17. Tollanes MC, Wilcox AJ, Lie RT, Moster D. Familial risk of cerebral palsy: population based cohort study. BMJ 2014; 349:g4294.
18. Krageloh-Mann I, Horber V. The role of magnetic resonance imaging in elucidating the pathogenesis of cerebral palsy: a systematic review. Dev Med Child Neurol 2007; 49: 144-51.
19. Jacobs SE, Berg M, Hunt R, Tarnow-Mordi WO, Inder TE, Davis PG. Cooling for newborns with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; 1:CD003311.
20. Prechtl HF, Einspieler C, Cioni G, Bos AF, Ferrari F, Sontheimer D. An early marker for neurological deficits after perinatal brain lesions. Lancet 1997; 349:1361-3.
21. Spittle AJ, Boyd RN, Inder TE, Doyle LW. Predicting motor development in very preterm infants at 12 months corrected age: the role of qualitative magnetic resonance imaging and general movements assessments. Pediatrics 2009; 123:512-7.
22. Leonard JM, Cozens AL, Reid SM, Fahey MC, Ditchfield MR, Reddihough DS. Should children with cerebral palsy and normal imaging undergo testing for inherited metabolic disorders? Dev Med Child Neurol 2011; 53:226-32.
23. Ashwal S, Russman BS, Blasco PA, Miller G, Sandler A, Shevell M, et al. Practice parameter: diagnostic assessment of the child with cerebral palsy: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Practice Committee of the child neurology society. Neurology 2004:62:851-63.
24. Martinez-Biarge M, Diez-Sebastian J, Rutherford MA, Cowan FM. Outcomes after central grey matter injury in term perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Early Hum Dev 2010; 86:675-82.
25. Cans C. Surveillance of cerebral palsy in Europe: a collaboration of cerebral palsy surveys and registers. Dev Med Child Neurol 2000; 42:816-24.
26. Palisano R, Rosenbaum P, Walter S, Russell D, Wood E, Galuppi B. Development and reliability of a system to classify gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 1997; 39:214-23.
27. Eliasson AC, Krumlinde-Sundholm L, Rosblad B, Beckung E, Arner M, Ohrvall AM, et al. The Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) for children with cerebral palsy: scale development and evidence for validity and reliability. Dev Med Child Neurol 2006; 48:549-54.
28. Hidecker MJ, Paneth N, Rosenbaum PL, Kent RD, Lillie J, Eulenberg JB, et al. Developing and validating the communication function classification system for individuals with cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 2011; 53:704-10.
29. Fauconnier J, Dickinson HO, Beckung E, Marcelli M, McManus V, Michelsen SI, et al. Participation in life situations of 8-12 year old children with cerebral palsy: cross sectional European study. BMJ 2009; 338:b1458.
30. Gorter JW, Rosenbaum PL, Hanna SE, Palisano RJ, Bartlett DJ, Russell DJ, et al. Limb distribution, motor impairment, and functional classification of cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 2004; 46:461-7.
31. Dobson F, Boyd RN, Parrott J, Nattrass GR, Graham HK. Hip surveillance in children with cerebral palsy. Impact on the surgical management of spastic hip disease. J Bone Joint Surg Br 2002; 84:720-6.
32. Rosenbaum P. Cerebral palsy: what parents and doctors want to know. BMJ2003; 326:970-4.
33. World Health Organization. International classification of functioning, disability and health. WHO, 2001.
34. Rosenbaum P, King S, Law M, King G, Evans J. Family-centered service: a conceptual framework and research review. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr 1998; 18:1-20.
35. Novak I, McIntyre S, Morgan C, Campbell L, Dark L, Morton N, et al. A systematic review of interventions for children with cerebral palsy: state of the evidence. Dev Med Child Neurol 2013; 55:885-910.
36. Dickinson HO, Parkinson KN, Ravens-Sieberer U, Schirripa G, Thyen U, Arnaud C, et al. Self-reported quality of life of 8-12-year-old children with cerebral palsy: a cross-sectional European study. Lancet 2007:369:2171-8.
37. Mugglestone M, Eunson P, Murphy MS. Spasticity in children and young people with non-progressive brain disorders: summary of NICE guidance. BMJ 2012; 345:e4845.
38. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Spasticity in children and young people with non-progressive brain disorders. (Clinical guideline 145.) 2012. www.nice.org.uk/CG145.
39. Darrah J, Fan JSW, Chen LC, Nunweiler J, Watkins B. Review of effects of progressive resisted muscle strengthening in children with cerebral palsy: a clinical consensus exercise. Pediatr Phys Ther 1997; 9:12-7.
40. Dodd KJ, Taylor NF, Damiano DL. A systematic review of the effectiveness of strength-training programs for people with cerebral palsy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002; 83:1157-64.
41. Verschuren O, Ketelaar M, Takken T, Helders PJ, Gorter JW. Exercise programs for children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review of the literature. Am J of Phys Med Rehabil 2008; 87:404-17.
42. Anttila H, Autti-Ramo I, Suoranta J, Makela M, Malmivaara A. Effectiveness of physical therapy interventions for children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review. BMC Pediatr 2008; 8:14.
43. Morris C. A review of the efficacy of lower-limb orthoses used for cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 2002; 44:205-11.
44. Scheinberg A, Hall K, Lam LT, O’Flaherty S. Oral baclofen in children with cerebral palsy: a double-blind cross-over pilot study. J Paediatr Child Health 2006; 42:715-20.
45. Ward A, Hayden S, Dexter M, Scheinberg A. Continuous intrathecal baclofen for children with spasticity and/or dystonia: goal attainment and complications associated with treatment. J Paed Child Health 2009; 45:720-6.
46. Love SC, Novak I, Kentish M, Desloovere K, Heinen F, Molenaers G, et al. Botulinum toxin assessment, intervention and after-care for lower limb spasticity in children with cerebral palsy: international consensus statement. Eur J Neurol 2010; 17(Supp 2):9-37.
47. Fehlings D, Novak I, Berweck S, Hoare B, Stott NS, Russo RN, Cerebral Palsy Institute. Botulinum toxin assessment, intervention and follow-up for paediatric upper limb hypertonicity: international consensus statement. Eur J Neurol 2010; 17(Supp 2):38-56.
48. O’Flaherty SJ, Janakan V, Morrow AM, Scheinberg AM, Waugh MC. Adverse events and health status following botulinum toxin type A injections in children with cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 2011; 53:101-2.
49. Grunt S, Becher JG, Vermeulen RJ. Long-term outcome and adverse effects of selective dorsal rhizotomy in children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review. Dev Med Child Neurol 2011; 53:490-8.
50. Bache CE, Selber P, Graham HK. The management of spastic diplegia. Curr Orthop 2003; 17:88-104.
51. Tedroff K, Lowing K, Jacobson DN, Astrom E. Does loss of spasticity matter? A 10-year follow-up after selective dorsal rhizotomy in cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 2011; 53:724-9.
52. Strauss D, Brooks J, Rosenbloom L, Shavelle R. Life expectancy in cerebral palsy: an update. Dev Med Child Neurol 2008; 50:487-93.
53. Weir KA, Bell KL, Caristo F, Ware RS, Davies PS, Fahey M, et al. Reported eating ability of young children with cerebral palsy: is there an association with gross motor function? Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2013; 94:495-502.
54. Reilly S, Skuse D, Poblete X. Prevalence of feeding problems and oral motor dysfunction in children with cerebral palsy: a community survey. J Pediatr 1996; 129:877-82.
55. Calis EA, Veugelers R, Sheppard JJ, Tibboel D, Evenhuis HM, Penning C. Dysphagia in children with severe generalised cerebral palsy and intellectual disability. Dev Med Child Neurol 2008; 50:625-30.
56. Benigni I, Devos P, Rofidal T, Seguy D. The CP-MST, a malnutrition screening tool for institutionalized adult cerebral palsy patients. Clin Nutr 2011; 30:769-73.
57. Odding E, Roebroeck ME, Stam HJ. The epidemiology of cerebral palsy: incidence, impairments and risk factors. Disabil Rehabil 2006; 28:183-91.
58. Fung EB, Samson-Fang L, Stallings VA, Conaway M, Liptak G, Henderson RC, et al. Feeding dysfunction is associated with poor growth and health status in children with cerebral palsy. J Am Diet Assoc 2002; 102:361-73.
59. Eckstein KC, Mikhail LM, Ariza AJ, Thomson JS, Millard SC, Binns HJ, Pediatric Practice Research Group. Parents’ perceptions of their child’s weight and health. Pediatrics 2006; 117:681-90.
60. Sidner L, Majnemer A, Darsaklis V. Feeding interventions for children with cerebral palsy: a review of the evidence. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr 2011; 31:58-77.
61. Nolan J, Chalkiadis GA, Low J, Olesch CA, Brown TC. Anaesthesia and pain management in cerebral palsy. Anaesthesia 2000; 55:32-41.
62. Vernon-Roberts A, Wells J, Grant H, Alder N, Vadamalayan B, Eltumi M, et al. Gastrostomy feeding in cerebral palsy: enough and no more. Dev Med Child Neurol 2010; 52:1099-105.
63. Arrowsmith F, Allen J, Gaskin K, Somerville H, Clarke S, O’Loughlin E. The effect of gastrostomy tube feeding on body protein and bone mineralization in children with quadriplegic cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 2010; 52:1043-7.
64. Sleigh G, Sullivan PB, Thomas AG. Gastrostomy feeding versus feeding alone for children with cerebral palsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004; 2:CD003943.
65. Sullivan PB, Juszczak E, Bachlet AM, Thomas AG, Lambert B, Vernon-Roberts A, et al. Impact of gastrostomy tube feeding on the quality of life of careers of children with cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 2004; 46:796-800.
66. Reddihough D, Erasmus CE, Johnson H, McKellar GM, Jongerius PH, Cerebral Palsy Institute. Botulinum toxin assessment, intervention and aftercare for paediatric and adult drooling: international consensus statement. Eur J Neurol 2010; 17(Supp 2):109-21.
67. Soo B, Howard JJ, Boyd RN, Reid SM, Lanigan A, Wolfe R, et al. Hip displacement in cerebral palsy. J Bone J Surg Am 2006; 88:121-9.
68. Persson-Bunke M, Hagglund G, Lauge-Pedersen H, et al. Scoliosis in a total population of children with cerebral palsy. Spine 2012; 37:E708-13.
69. Hagglund G, Andersson S, Duppe H, Lauge-Pedersen H, Nordmark E, Westbom L. Prevention of dislocation of the hip in children with cerebral palsy. The first ten years of a population-based prevention programme. J Bone J Surg Br 2005; 87:95-101.
70. Wynter M, Gibson N, Kentish M, Love S, Thomason P, Graham HK. The consensus statement on hip surveillance for children with cerebral palsy: Australian standards of care. J Ped Rehab Med 2011; 4:183-95.
71. Parkinson K, Gibson L, Dickinson H, Colver A. Pain in children with cerebral palsy: a cross-sectional multicentre European study. Acta Paediatr 2010; 99:446-51.
72. Parkinson KN, Dickinson HO, Arnaud C, Lyons A, Colver A. Pain in young people aged 13-17 years with cerebral palsy: cross-sectional, multicentre European study. Arch Dis Child 2013; 98:434-40.
73. Castle K, Imms C, Howie L. Being in pain: a phenomenological study of young people with cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 2007; 49:445-9.
74. Zafeiriou DI, Kontopoulos EE, Tsikoulas I. Characteristics and prognosis of epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy. J Child Neurol 1999; 14:289-94.
75. Pennington L, Goldbart J, Marshall J. Speech and language therapy to improve the communication skills of children with cerebral palsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004; 2:CD003466.
76. Russman BS, Ashwal S. Evaluation of the child with cerebral palsy. Semin Pediatr Neurol 2004; 11:47-57.
77. Roebroeck ME, Jahnsen R, Carona C, Kent RM, Chamberlain MA. Adult outcomes and lifespan issues for people with childhood-onset physical disability. Dev Med Child Neurol 2009; 51:670-8.

 

Comentarios

Usted debe ingresar al sitio con su cuenta de usuario IntraMed para ver los comentarios de sus colegas o para expresar su opinión. Si ya tiene una cuenta IntraMed o desea registrase, ingrese aquí

AAIP RNBD
Términos y condiciones de uso | Todos los derechos reservados | Copyright 1997-2020