Etiología, diagnóstico y tratamiento | 02 JUN 14

Accidente cerebrovascular isquémico de la circulación posterior

Esta revisión tiene como objetivo demostrar la importancia y el desafío de diagnosticar y tratar el ACV de la circulación posterior, incluyendo las diferencias fundamentales con el ACV de la circulación anterior.
Autor/a: Dres. Áine Merwick , David Werring BMJ 2014;348:g3175
INDICE:  1.  | 2. Referencias

1 Flossmann E, Rothwell PM. Prognosis of vertebrobasilar transient ischaemic attack and minor stroke. Brain 2003;126:1940-54.
2 Kuruvilla A, Bhattacharya P, Rajamani K, Chaturvedi S. Factors associated with misdiagnosis of acute stroke in young adults. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2011;20:523-7.
3 Dewey HM, Sturm J, Donnan GA, Macdonell RA, McNeil JJ, Thrift AG; North East Melbourne Stroke Incidence Study. Incidence and Outcome of Subtypes of Ischaemic Stroke: Initial Results from the North East Melbourne Stroke Incidence Study (NEMESIS). Cerebrovasc Dis 2003;15:133-9.
4 Paul NL, Simoni M, Rothwell PM; Oxford Vascular Study. Transient isolated brainstem symptoms preceding posterior circulation stroke: a population-based study. Lancet Neurol 2013;12:65-71.
5 Gulli G, Markus HS. The use of FAST and ABCD2 scores in posterior circulation, compared with anterior circulation, stroke and transient ischemic attack. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2012;83:228-9.
6 Gulli G, Marquardt L, Rothwell PM, Markus HS. Stroke risk after posterior circulation stroke/transient ischemic attack and its relationship to site of vertebrobasilar stenosis: Pooled data analysis from prospective studies. Stroke 2013;44:598-604.
7 Tao WD, Liu M, Fisher M, Wang DR, Li J, Furie KL, et al. Posterior versus anterior circulation infarction: how different are the neurological deficits? Stroke 2012;43:2060-5.
8 Oppenheim C, Stanescu R, Dormont D, Crozier S, Marro B, Samson Y, et al. False-negative diffusion-weighted MR findings in acute ischemic stroke. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2000;21:1434-40.
9 Merwick Á, Albers GW, Arsava EM, Ay H, Calvet D,Coutts SB, et al. Reduction in early stroke risk in carotid stenosis with transient ischemic attack associated with statin treatment. Stroke 2013;44:2814-20.
10 Flossmann E, Redgrave JN, Briley D, Rothwell PM. Reliability of clinical diagnosis of the symptomatic vascular territory in patients with recent transient ischemic attack or minor stroke. Stroke 2008;39:2457-60.
11 Savitz SI, Caplan LR. Vertebrobasilar disease. N Engl J Med 2005;352:2618.
12 Caplan LR, Wityk RJ, Glass TA, Tapia J, Pazdera L, Chang HM, et al. New England Medical Center posterior circulation registry. Ann Neurol 2004;56:389.
13 Gulli G, Khan S, Markus HS. Vertebrobasilar stenosis predicts high early recurrent stroke risk in posterior circulation stroke and TIA. Stroke 2009;40:2732-7.
14 Marquardt L, Kuker W, Chandratheva A, Geraghty O, Rothwell PM. Incidence and prognosis of ≥50% symptomatic vertebral or basilar artery stenosis: prospective population-based study. Brain 2009;132:982-8.
15 Schievink Wl. Spontaneous dissection of the  carotid and vertebral arteries. N Engl J Med 2001;344:898-906.
16 Lou M, Caplan LR. Vertebrobasilar dilatative arteriopathy (dolichoectasia). Ann N Y Acad Sci 2010;1184:121-33.
17 Ad Hoc Committee National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke. A classification and outline of cerebrovascular diseases. II. Stroke 1975;6:564-616.
18 Searls DE, Pazdera L, Korbel E, Vysata O, Caplan LR. Symptoms and signs of posterior circulation ischemia in the New England Medical Center posterior circulation registry. Arch Neurol 2012;69:346.
19 Kattah JC, Talkad AV, Wang DZ, Hsieh YH, Newman-Toker DE. HINTS to diagnose stroke in the acute vestibular syndrome: three-step bedside oculomotor examination more sensitive than early MRI diffusion-weighted imaging. Stroke 2009;40:3504-10.
20 Caplan L. Posterior circulation ischemia: then, now, and tomorrow. The Thomas Willis lecture-2000. Stroke 2000;31:2011-23.
21 Von Campe G, Regli F, Bogousslavsky J. Heralding manifestations of basilar artery occlusion with lethal or severe stroke J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003;74:1621-6.
22 Mattle HP, Arnold M, Lindsberg PJ, Schonewille WJ, Schroth G. Basilar artery occlusion. Lancet Neurol 2011;10:1002-14.
23 Bogousslavsky J, Van Melle G, Regli F. The Lausanne stroke registry: analysis of 1000 consecutive patients with first stroke. Stroke 1988;19:1083-92.
24 Hatano S. Experience from a multicentre stroke register: a preliminary report. Bull World Health Organ 1976;54:541-53.
25 Nor AM, Davis J, Sen B, Shipsey D, Louw SJ, Dyker AG et al. The recognition of stroke in the emergency room (ROSIER) scale: Development and validation of a stroke recognition instrument. Lancet Neurol 2005;4:727-34.
26 Bash S, Villablanca JP, Jahan R, Duckwiler G, Tillis M, Kidwell C, et al. Intracranial vascular stenosis and occlusive disease: evaluation with CT angiography, MR angiography, and digital subtraction angiography. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2005;26:1012-21.
27 Chalela JA, Kidwell CS, Nentwich LM, Luby M, Butman JA, Demchuk AM, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in emergency assessment of patients with suspected acute stroke: a prospective comparison. Lancet 2007;369:293-8.
28 Edlow JA, Newman-Toker DE, Savitz SI. Diagnosis and initial management of cerebellar infarction. Lancet Neurol 2008;7:951-64.
29 Easton JD, Saver JL, Albers GW, Alberts MJ, Chaturvedi S, Feldmann E, et al. Definition and evaluation of transient ischemic attack: a scientific statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council; Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; and the Interdisciplinary Council on Peripheral Vascular Disease. Stroke 2009;40:2276-93.
30 Merwick A, Albers GW, Amarenco P, Arsava EM, Ay H, Calvet D, et al. Addition of brain and carotid imaging to the ABCD2 score to improve identification of patients at high early stroke risk after transient ischaemic attack. Lancet Neurol 2010;9:1060-9.
31 Moreau F, Modi J, Almekhlafi M, Bal S, Goyal M, Hill MD, et al. Early magnetic resonance imaging in transient ischemic attack and minor stroke: do it or lose it. Stroke 2013;44:671-4.
32 Hacke W, Kaste M, Bluhmki E, Brozman M, Dávalos A, Guidetti D, et al. Thrombolysis with alteplase 3 to 4.5 hours after acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 2008;359:1317-29.
33 Förster A, Gass A, Kern R, Griebe M, Hennerici MG, Szabo K. Thrombolysis in posterior circulation stroke: stroke subtypes and patterns, complications and outcome. Cerebrovasc Dis 2011;32:349-53.
34 Sarraj A, Medrek S, Albright K, Martin-Schild S, Bibars W, Vahidy F, et al. Posterior circulation stroke is associated with prolonged door-to-needle time. Int J Stroke 2013; published online 22 Mar.
35 Schonewille WJ, Wijman CA, Michel P, Rueckert CM, Weimar C, Mattle HP, et al. Treatment and outcomes of acute basilar artery occlusion in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS): a prospective registry study. Lancet Neurol 2009;8:724-30.
36 Lutsep HL, Rymer MM, Nesbit GM. Vertebrobasilar revascularization rates and outcomes in the MERCI and multi-MERCI trials. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2008;17:55-7.
37 Hacke W, Zeumer H, Ferbert A, Bruckmann H, del Zoppo GJ. Intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy improves outcome in patients with acute vertebrobasilar occlusive disease. Stroke 1988;19:1216-22.
38 Lindsberg PJ, Mattle HP. Therapy of basilar artery occlusion: a systematic analysis comparing intra-arterial and intravenous thrombolysis. Stroke 2006;37:922-8.
39 Levy EI, Siddiqui AH, Crumlish A, Snyder KV, Hauck EF, Fiorella DJ, et al. First Food and Drug Administration-approved prospective trial of primary intracranial stenting for acute stroke: SARIS (stent-assisted recanalization in acute ischemic stroke). Stroke 2009;40:3552-6.
40 Strbian D, Sairanen T, Silvennoinen H, Salonen O, Kaste M, Lindsberg PJ. Thrombolysis of basilar artery occlusion: impact of baseline ischemia and time. Ann Neurol2013;73:688-94.
41 Horwitz NH, Ludolph C. Acute obstructive hydrocephalus caused by cerebellar infarction: treatment alternatives. Surg Neurol 1983;20:13-9.
42 Hornig CR, Rust DS, Busse O, Jauss M, Laun A. Space-occupying cerebellar infarction: clinical course and prognosis. Stroke 1994;25:372-4.
43 Jauch EC, Saver JL, Adams HP Jr, Bruno A, Connors JJ, Demaerschalk BM, et al; American Heart Association Stroke Council; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; Council on Peripheral Vascular Disease; Council on Clinical Cardiology. Guidelines for the early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 2013;44:870-947.
44 Intercollegiate Stroke Working Party. National clinical guideline for stroke. 4th ed. Royal College of Physicians, 2012.
45 Cotter PE, Martin PJ, Ring L, Warburton EA, Belham M, Pugh PJ. Incidence of atrial fibrillation detected by implantable loop recorders in unexplained stroke. Neurology 2013;80:1546-50.
46 PROGRESS Collaborative Group. Randomised trial of a perindopril-based blood-pressure lowering regimen among 6105 individuals with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Lancet 2001;358:1033-41.
47 Wang Y, WangY, Zhao X, Liu L, Wang D, Wang C, et al. Clopidogrel with aspirin in acute minor stroke or transient ischemic attack. N Engl J Med 2013;369:11-9.
48 Amarenco P, Bogousslavsky J, Callahan A III, Goldstein LB, Hennerici M, Rudolph AE, et al; Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) Investigators. High-dose atorvastatin after stroke or transient ischemic attack. N Engl J Med 2006;355:549-59.
49 Lindsberg PJ, Soinne L, Tatlisumak T, Roine RO, Kallela M, Häppölä O, et al. Long-term outcome after intravenous thrombolysis of basilar artery occlusion. JAMA 2004;292:1862-6.
50 St George’s, University of London. Vertebral artery ischaemia stenting trial (VIST). www.
51 Compter A, van der Worp HB, Schonewille WJ, Vos JA, Algra A, Lo TH, et al. VAST: vertebral artery stenting trial. Protocol for a randomised safety and feasibility trial. Trials 2008;9:65.
52 Johnston SC, Rothwell PM, Nguyen-Huynh MN, Giles MF, Elkins JS, Bernstein AL, et al. Validation and refinement of scores to predict very early stroke after transient ischaemic attack. Lancet 2007;369:283-92.
53 Sheehan OC, Merwick A, Kelly LA, Hannon N, Marnane M, Kyne L, et al. Diagnostic usefulness of ABCD2 score to distinguish TIA and minor ischemic stroke from non-cerebrovascular events: the North Dublin TIA study. Stroke 2009;40:3449-54.



Para ver los comentarios de sus colegas o para expresar su opinión debe ingresar con su cuenta de IntraMed.

Términos y condiciones de uso | Todos los derechos reservados | Copyright 1997-2021