1 Barnes PJ. Inhaled corticosteroids.Pharmaceuticals 2010; 3:514-40.
2 Calverley P, Pauwels R, Vestbo J, Jones P, Pride N, Gulsvik A, et al. Combined salmeterol and fluticasone in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized controlled trial. Lancet 2003; 361:449-56.
3 Calverley PM, Anderson JA, Celli B, Ferguson GT, Jenkins C, Jones PW, et al. Salmeterol and fluticasone propionate and survival in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med 2007; 356:775-89.
4 Szafranski W, Cukier A, Ramirez A, Menga G , Sansores R, Nahabedian S, et al. Efficacy and safety of budesonide/formoterol in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur Respir J 2003; 21:74-81.
5 Calverley PM, Boonsawat W, Cseke Z, Zhong N, Peterson S, Olsson H. Maintenance therapy with budesonide and formoterol in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur Respir J 2003; 22:912-9.
6 Burge PS, Calverley PM, Jones PW, Spencer S, Anderson JA, Maslen TK. Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study of fluticasone propionate in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the ISOLDE trial. BMJ 2000; 320:1297-303.
7 Kardos P, Wencker M,Glaab T, Vogelmeier C. Impact of salmeterol/fluticasone propionate versus salmeterol on exacerbations in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2007; 175:144-9.
8 Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (Revised2011.) www.goldcopd.org/guidelines-global-strategy-for-diagnosis-management.html.
9 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease: management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults in primary and secondary care(partial update).(Clinical guideline 101.) 2010.http://guidance.nice.org. uk/CG101
10 Sobieraj DM, White CM, Coleman CI. Benefits and risks of adjunctive inhaled corticosteroids in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis. Clin Ther 2008; 30:1416-25.
11 Lapperre TS, Snoeck-Stroband JB, Gosman MM, Jansen DF, van Schadewijk A, Thiadens HA, et al. Effect of fluticasone with and without salmeterol on pulmonary outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2009; 151:517-27.
12 Pizzichini E, Pizzichini MM, Gibson P, Parameswaran K, Gleich GJ, Berman L, et al. Sputum eosinophilia predicts benefit from prednisone in smokers with chronic obstructive bronchitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998; 158(5part1):1511-7.
13 Brightling CE, Monteiro W, Ward R, Parker D, Morgan MD, Wardlaw AJ, et al. Sputum eosinophilia and short-term response to prednisolone in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2000; 356:1480-5.
14 Brightling CE, McKennaS, Hargadon B, Birring S, Green R, Siva R, et al. Sputum eosinophilia and the short term response to inhaled mometasone in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax 2005; 60:193-8.
15 Roland NJ, Bhalla RK, Earis J. The local side effects of inhaled corticosteroids: current understanding and review of the literature. Chest 2004; 126:213-9.
16 Lung Health Study Research Group. Effect of inhaled triamcinolone on the decline in pulmonary function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med 2000; 343:1902-9.
17 Ferguson GT, Calverley PM, Anderson JA, Jenkins CR, Jones PW, Willits LR, et al. Prevalence and progression of osteoporosis in patients with COPD: results from the Towards a Revolutionin COPD Health study. Chest 2009; 136:1456-65.
18 Johnell O, Pauwels R, Lofdahl CG, Laitinen LA, Postma DS, Pride NB, et al. Bone mineral density in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated with budesonide Turbuhaler. Eur Respir J 2002; 19:1058-63.
19 VestboJ, Sorensen T, Lange P, Brix A, Torre P, Viskum K. Long-term effect of inhaled budesonide in mild and moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized controlled trial. Lancet 1999; 353:1819-23.
20 Tashkin DP, Rennard SI, Martin P, Ramachandran S, Martin UJ, Silkoff PE, et al. Efficacy and safety of budesonide and formoterol in one pressurized metered-dose inhaler in patients with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: results of a 6-month randomized clinical trial. Drugs 2008; 68:1975-2000.
21 Rennard SI, Tashkin DP, Mc Elhattan J, Goldman M, Ramachandran S, Martin UJ, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of budesonide/formoterol in one hydrofluoroalkane pressurized metered-dose inhaler in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: results from a 1-year randomized controlled clinical trial. Drugs 2009; 69:549-65.
22 Sharafkhaneh A, Southard JG, Goldman M, Uryniak T, Martin UJ. Effect of budesonide/formoterol pMDI on COPD exacerbations: a double-blind, randomized study. Respir Med 2012; 106:257-68
23 Aaron SD, Vandemheen KL, Fergusson D, Maltais F, Bourbeau J, Goldstein R, et al. Tiotropiumin combination with placebo, salmeterol, or fluticasone-salmeterol for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2007; 146:545-55.
24 Wedzicha JA, Calverley PM, Seemungal TA, Hagan G, Ansari Z, Stockley RA. The prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations by salmeterol/fluticasone propionate or tiotropium bromide. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2008;177:19-26.
25 SinghS, Amin AV, Loke YK. Long-term use of inhaled corticosteroids and the risk of pneumonia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 2009;169:219-29.
26 Crim C, Calverley PM, Anderson JA, Celli B, Ferguson GT, Jenkins C, et al. Pneumonia risk in COPD patients receiving inhaled corticosteroids alone or in combination:TORCH study results. Eur Respir J 2009; 34:641-7.
27 Sin DD, Tashkin D, Zhang X, Radner F, Sjobring U, Thoren A, et al. Budesonide and the risk of pneumonia :a meta-analysis of individual patient data. Lancet 2009; 374:712-9.
28 Foisy MM, Yakiwchuk EM, Chiu I, Singh AE. Adrenal suppression and Cushing’s syndrome secondary to an interaction between ritonavir and fluticasone: a review of the literature. HIV Medicine 2008; 9:389-96.
29 Dal NR, Eandi M, Pradelli L, Iannazzo S. Cost-effectiveness and health care budget impact in Italy of inhaled corticosteroids andbronchodilators for severe and very severe COPD patients. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2007; 2:169-76.
30 Briggs AH, Glick HA, Lozano-Ortega G, Spencer M, Calverley PM, Jones PW, et al. Is treatment with ICS and LABA cost-effective for COPD? Multinational economic analysis of the TORCH study. Eur Respir J 2010;35:532-9.
31 Singh D, BrooksJ, Hagan G, Cahn A, O’Connor BJ. Superiority of “triple” therapy with salmeterol/fluticasone propionate and tiotropium bromide versus individual components in moderate to severe COPD.Thorax 2008; 63:592-8.
32 WelteT, Miravitlles M, Hernandez P, Eriksson G, Peterson S, Polanowski T, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of budesonide/formoterol added to tiotropium in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2009; 180:741-50.
Para ver los comentarios de sus colegas o para expresar su opinión debe ingresar con su cuenta de IntraMed.