Un grave problema no siempre considerado | 16 MAY 16

Prevención de las caídas

Resumen de la mejor evidencia disponible de los factores de riesgo de caídas en las personas mayores que viven en la comunidad y la forma de evaluar el riesgo
Autor/a: Edgar R Vieira, Richard C Palmer, Paulo H M Chaves Fuente: BMJ 2016;353:i1419  Prevention of falls in older people living in the community
INDICE:  1. Página 1 | 2. Referencias
Referencias

1,World Health Organization. WHO global report on falls prevention in older age. 2007. http://www.who.int/ageing/publications/Falls_ prevention7March.pdf.

2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Health Statistics. Underlying cause of death 1999-2012. 2014. http://wonder. cdc.gov/ucd-icd10.html.

3 Masud T, Morris RO. Epidemiology of falls. Age Ageing 2001;30(Suppl 4):3-7. doi:10.1093/ageing/30.suppl_4.3 pmid:11769786.

4 Stel VS, Smit JH, Pluijm SMF, Lips P. Consequences of falling in older men and women and risk factors for health service use and functional decline. Age Ageing 2004;33:58-65. doi:10.1093/ageing/ afh028 pmid:14695865.

5 Kennedy TE. The prevention of falls in later life. Dan Med Bull 1987;34(Suppl 4):1-24.pmid:3595217.

6 Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Cost of falls among older adults. http://www.cdc.gov/homeandrecreationalsafety/falls/fallcost.html.

7 Age UK. Falls in the over 65s cost NHS £4.6 million a day. 2010. http:// www.ageuk.org.uk/latest-press/archive/falls-over-65s-cost-nhs/.

8 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Falls: assessment and prevention of falls in older people. 2013. https://www.nice.org.uk/ guidance/cg161.

9 Stevens JA, Corso PS, Finkelstein EA, Miller TR. The costs of fatal and non-fatal falls among older adults. Inj Prev 2006;12:290-5. doi:10.1136/ ip.2005.011015 pmid:17018668.

10 Friedman SM, Munoz B, West SK, Rubin GS, Fried LP. Falls and fear of falling: which comes first? A longitudinal prediction model suggests strategies for primary and secondary prevention. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002;50:1329-35. doi:10.1046/j.1532- 5415.2002.50352.x pmid:12164987.

11 Liddle J, Gilleard C. The emotional consequences of falls for older people and their families. Clin Rehabil 1995;9:110-4. doi:10.1177/026921559500900204.

12 Cumming RG, Salkeld G, Thomas M, Szonyi G. Prospective study of the impact of fear of falling on activities of daily living, SF-36 scores, and nursing home admission. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2000;55:M299- 305. doi:10.1093/gerona/55.5.M299 pmid:10819321.

13 Vellas BJ, Wayne SJ, Romero LJ, Baumgartner RN, Garry PJ. Fear of falling and restriction of mobility in elderly fallers. Age Ageing 1997;26:189-93. doi:10.1093/ageing/26.3.189 pmid:9223714.

14 Tinetti ME, Williams CS. The effect of falls and fall injuries on functioning in community-dwelling older persons. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1998;53A:M112-9. doi:10.1093/gerona/53A.2.M112 pmid:9520917.

15 Tinetti ME, Williams CS. Falls, injuries due to falls, and the risk of admission to a nursing home. N Engl J Med 1997;337:1279-84. doi:10.1056/NEJM199710303371806 pmid:9345078.

16 Cumming RG, Salkeld G, Thomas M, Szonyi G. Prospective study of the impact of fear of falling on activities of daily living, SF-36 scores, and nursing home admission. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2000;55:M299- 305. doi:10.1093/gerona/55.5.M299 pmid:10819321.

17 Salkeld G, Cameron ID, Cumming RG, et al. Quality of life related to fear of falling and hip fracture in older women: a time trade off study. BMJ 2000;320:341-6. doi:10.1136/bmj.320.7231.341 pmid:

18 Nevitt MC, Cummings SR, Kidd S, Black D. Risk factors for recurrent nonsyncopal falls. A prospective study. JAMA 1989;261:2663-8. doi:10.1001/jama.1989.03420180087036 pmid:2709546.

19 Stubbs B, Brefka S, Denkinger MD. What works to prevent falls in community-dwelling older adults? An umbrella review of meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials. Phys Ther 2015;95:1095-110. doi:10.2522/ptj.20140461 pmid:25655877.

20 Boyé ND, Mattace-Raso FU, Van der Velde N, et al. IMPROveFALL trial collaborators. Circumstances leading to injurious falls in older men and women in the Netherlands. Injury 2014;45:1224-30. doi:10.1016/j. injury.2014.03.021 pmid:24818642.

21 Duckham RL, Procter-Gray E, Hannan MT, Leveille SG, Lipsitz LA, Li W. Sex differences in circumstances and consequences of outdoor and indoor falls in older adults in the MOBILIZE Boston cohort study. BMC Geriatr 2013;13:133. doi:10.1186/1471-2318-13-133 pmid:24313971.

22 Pohl P, Nordin E, Lundquist A, Bergström U, Lundin-Olsson L. Community-dwelling older people with an injurious fall are likely to sustain new injurious falls within 5 years—a prospective long-term follow-up study. BMC Geriatr 2014;14:120.. doi:10.1186/1471-2318-14- 120 pmid:25407714.

23 Tinetti ME, Speechley M, Ginter SF. Risk factors for falls among elderly persons living in the community. N Engl J Med 1988;319:1701-7. doi:10.1056/NEJM198812293192604 pmid:3205267.

24 Ambrose AF, Paul G, Hausdorff JM. Risk factors for falls among older adults: a review of the literature. Maturitas 2013;75:51-61. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2013.02.009 pmid:23523272.

25 Bauer CM, Groger I, Rupprecht R, et alPrediction of future falls in a community dwelling older adult population using instrumented balance and gait analysis. Z Gerontol Geriatr2015; published online 11 Apr; doi:10.1007/s00391-015-0885-0.

26 Kojima G, Masud T, Kendrick D, et al. Does the timed up and go test predict future falls among British community-dwelling older people? Prospective cohort study nested within a randomised controlled trial. BMC Geriatr 2015;15:38. doi:10.1186/s12877-015-0039-7 pmid:25887660.

27 Stubbs B, Binnekade T, Eggermont L, Sepehry AA, Patchay S, Schofield P. Pain and the risk for falls in community-dwelling older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2014;95:175-187.e9. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2013.08.241 pmid:24036161.

28 Richardson K, Bennett K, Kenny RA. Polypharmacy including falls risk-increasing medications and subsequent falls in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. Age Ageing 2015;44:90-6.. doi:10.1093/ ageing/afu141 pmid:25313240.

29 Kenny RA. Syncope. In: Studenski S, High KP, Asthana S, eds. Hazzard’s geriatric medicine and gerontology. McGraw-Hill, 2009:693-702.

30 Anstey KJ, von Sanden C, Luszcz MA. An 8-year prospective study of the relationship between cognitive performance and falling in very old adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 2006;54:1169-76.. doi:10.1111/j.1532- 5415.2006.00813.x pmid:16913981.

31 Tinetti ME, Inouye SK, Gill TM, Doucette JT. Shared risk factors for falls, incontinence, and functional dependence. Unifying the approach to geriatric syndromes. JAMA 1995;273:1348-53. doi:10.1001/ jama.1995.03520410042024 pmid:7715059.

32 Mansfield A, Wong JS, McIlroy WE, et al. Do measures of reactive balance control predict falls in people with stroke returning to the community?Physiotherapy 2015;101:373-80. doi:10.1016/j. physio.2015.01.009 pmid:26050134.

33 Vieira ER, Mendy A, Prado CM, Gasana J, Albatineh AN. Falls, physical limitations, confusion and memory problems in people with type II diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes, and the influence of vitamins A, D and E. J Diabetes Complications 2015;29:1159-64. doi:10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2015.08.005 pmid:26344725.

34 Hewston P, Deshpande N. Falls and balance impairments in older adults with type 2 diabetes: thinking beyond diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Can J Diabetes 2016;40:6-9. doi:10.1016/j. jcjd.2015.08.005 pmid:26778679.

35 Michael YL, Whitlock EP, Lin JS, Fu R, O’Connor EA, Gold R. US Preventive Services Task Force. Primary care-relevant interventions to prevent falling in older adults: a systematic evidence review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 2010;153:815-25. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-153-12-201012210- 00008 pmid:21173416.

36 Gillespie LD, Robertson MC, Gillespie WJ, et al. Interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;9:CD007146.pmid:22972103.

37 Hallal CZ, Marques NR, Spinoso DH, Vieira ER, Gonçalves M. Electromyographic patterns of lower limb muscles during apprehensive gait in younger and older female adults. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2013;23:1145-9. doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2013.06.006 pmid:23880233.

38 Muir SW, Gopaul K, Montero Odasso MM. The role of cognitive impairment in fall risk among older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Age Ageing 2012;41:299-308. doi:10.1093/ageing/ afs012 pmid:22374645.

39 Ganz DA, Bao Y, Shekelle PG, Rubenstein LZ. Will my patient fall?JAMA 2007;297:77-86. doi:10.1001/jama.297.1.77 pmid:17200478.

40 Winter H, Watt K, Peel NM. Falls prevention interventions for community-dwelling older persons with cognitive impairment: a systematic review. Int Psychogeriatr 2013;25:215-27. doi:10.1017/ S1041610212001573 pmid:23031328.

41 Guccione AA, Avers D, Wong R. Geriatric physical therapy.Elsevier Health Sciences, 2011.

42 Fried LP, Tangen CM, Walston J, et al. Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group. Frailty in older adults: evidence for a phenotype. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2001;56:M146-56. doi:10.1093/gerona/56.3.M146 pmid:11253156.

43 Rubenstein LZ. Falls in older people: epidemiology, risk factors and strategies for prevention. Age Ageing 2006;35(Suppl 2):ii37-41. doi:10.1093/ageing/afl084 pmid:16926202.

44 Panel on Prevention of Falls in Older Persons, American Geriatrics Society and British Geriatrics Society. Summary of the Updated American Geriatrics Society/British Geriatrics Society clinical practice guideline for prevention of falls in older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc 2011;59:148-57. doi:10.1111/j.1532- 5415.2010.03234.x pmid:21226685.

45 Gangavati A, Hajjar I, Quach L, et al. Hypertension, orthostatic hypotension, and the risk of falls in a community-dwelling elderly population: the maintenance of balance, independent living, intellect, and zest in the elderly of Boston study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2011;59:383- 9. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2011.03317.x pmid:21391928.

46 Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Staehelin HB, et al. Fall prevention with supplemental and active forms of vitamin D: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 2009;339:b3692.. doi:10.1136/bmj.b3692 pmid:19797342.

47 Latham NK, Anderson CS, Reid IR. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on strength, physical performance, and falls in older persons: a systematic review. J Am Geriatr Soc 2003;51:1219-26. doi:10.1046/ j.1532-5415.2003.51405.x pmid:12919233.

48 Huang AR, Mallet L, Rochefort CM, Eguale T, Buckeridge DL, Tamblyn R. Medication-related falls in the elderly: causative factors and preventive strategies. Drugs Aging 2012;29:359-76. doi:10.2165/11599460- 000000000-00000 pmid:22550966.

49 Woolcott JC, Richardson KJ, Wiens MO, et al. Meta-analysis of the impact of 9 medication classes on falls in elderly persons. Arch Intern Med 2009;169:1952-60. doi:10.1001/ archinternmed.2009.357 pmid:19933955.

50 Tinetti ME, Han L, Lee DS, et al. Antihypertensive medications and serious fall injuries in a nationally representative sample of older adults. JAMA Intern Med 2014;174:588-95. doi:10.1001/ jamainternmed.2013.14764 pmid:24567036.

51 Campbell AJ, Borrie MJ, Spears GF, Jackson SL, Brown JS, Fitzgerald JL. Circumstances and consequences of falls experienced by a community population 70 years and over during a prospective study. Age Ageing 1990;19:136-41. doi:10.1093/ageing/19.2.136 pmid:2337010.

52 Tinetti MEKC, Kumar C. The patient who falls: “It’s always a trade-off”. JAMA 2010;303:258-66. doi:10.1001/ jama.2009.2024 pmid:20085954.

53 Tinetti ME. Clinical practice. Preventing falls in elderly persons. N Engl J Med 2003;348:42-9. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp020719 pmid:12510042.

54 Tan MP, Kenny RA. Cardiovascular assessment of falls in older people. Clin Interv Aging 2006;1:57-66. doi:10.2147/ ciia.2006.1.1.57 pmid:18047258.

55 Davies AJ, Steen N, Kenny RA. Carotid sinus hypersensitivity is common in older patients presenting to an accident and emergency department with unexplained falls. Age Ageing 2001;30:289-93. doi:10.1093/ ageing/30.4.289 pmid:11509305.

56 Kenny RA, O’Shea D, Walker HF. Impact of a dedicated syncope and falls facility for older adults on emergency beds. Age Ageing 2002;31:272- 5. doi:10.1093/ageing/31.4.272 pmid:12147565.

57 Allcock LM, O’Shea D. Diagnostic yield and development of a neurocardiovascular investigation unit for older adults in a district hospital. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2000;55:M458-62. doi:10.1093/gerona/55.8.M458 pmid:10952369.

58 Davies AJ, Kenny RA. Falls presenting to the accident and emergency department: types of presentation and risk factor profile. Age Ageing 1996;25:362-6. doi:10.1093/ageing/25.5.362 pmid:8921140.

59 Carey BJ, Potter JF. Cardiovascular causes of falls. Age Ageing 2001;30(Suppl 4):19-24. doi:10.1093/ageing/30. suppl_4.19 pmid:11769783.

60 Tinetti ME, Baker DI, McAvay G, et al. A multifactorial intervention to reduce the risk of falling among elderly people living in the community. N Engl J Med 1994;331:821-7. doi:10.1056/ NEJM199409293311301 pmid:8078528.

61 Arnold AC, Shibao C. Current concepts in orthostatic hypotension management. Curr Hypertens Rep 2013;15:304-12. doi:10.1007/ s11906-013-0362-3 pmid:23832761.

62 Carlson JE. Assessment of orthostatic blood pressure: measurement technique and clinical applications. South Med J 1999;92:167-73. doi:10.1097/00007611-199902000-00002 pmid:10071663.

63 Batchelor FA, Mackintosh SF, Said CM, Hill KD. Falls after stroke. Int J Stroke 2012;7:482-90.pmid:22494388.

64 Forster A, Young J. Incidence and consequences of falls due to stroke: a systematic inquiry. BMJ 1995;311:83-6. doi:10.1136/ bmj.311.6997.83 pmid:7613406.

65 Lawlor DA, Patel R, Ebrahim S. Association between falls in elderly women and chronic diseases and drug use: cross sectional study. BMJ 2003;327:712--7. doi:10.1136/bmj.327.7417.712 pmid:14512478.

66 Mathias S, Nayak US, Isaacs B. Balance in elderly patients: the “get-up and go” test. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1986;67:387-9.pmid:3487300.

67 Podsiadlo D, Richardson S. The timed “Up & Go”: a test of basic functional mobility for frail elderly persons. J Am Geriatr Soc 1991;39:142-8. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.1991. tb01616.x pmid:1991946.

68 Wall JC, Bell C, Campbell S, Davis J. The Timed Get-up-and-Go test revisited: measurement of the component tasks. J Rehabil Res Dev 2000;37:109-13.pmid:10847578.

69 Freter SH, Fruchter N. Relationship between timed “up and go” and gait time in an elderly orthopaedic rehabilitation population. Clin Rehabil 2000;14:96-101. doi:10.1191/026921500675545616 pmid:10688350.

70 Shumway-Cook A, Brauer S, Woollacott M. Predicting the probability for falls in community-dwelling older adults using the Timed Up & Go Test. Phys Ther 2000;80:896-903.pmid:10960937.

71 Bohannon RW. Reference values for the timed up and go test: a descriptive meta-analysis. J Geriatr Phys Ther 2006;29:64-8. doi:10.1519/00139143-200608000-00004 pmid:16914068.

72 Bohannon RW. Reference values for the timed up and go test: a descriptive meta-analysis. J Geriatr Phys Ther 2006;29:64-8. doi:10.1519/00139143-200608000-00004 pmid:16914068.

73 Guralnik JM, Ferrucci L, Simonsick EM, Salive ME, Wallace RB. Lower-extremity function in persons over the age of 70 years as a predictor of subsequent disability. N Engl J Med 1995;332:556-61. doi:10.1056/ NEJM199503023320902 pmid:7838189.

74 Working Group on Functional Outcome Measures for Clinical Trials. Functional outcomes for clinical trials in frail older persons: time to be moving. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2008;63:160-4. doi:10.1093/ gerona/63.2.160 pmid:18314451.

75 Cesari M, Vellas B, Hsu FC, et al. LIFE Study Group. A physical activity intervention to treat the frailty syndrome in older persons-results from the LIFE-P study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2015;70:216-22. doi:10.1093/gerona/glu099 pmid:25387728.

76 Pahor M, Guralnik JM, Ambrosius WT, et al. LIFE study investigators. Effect of structured physical activity on prevention of major mobility disability in older adults: the LIFE study randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2014;311:2387-96. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.5616 pmid:24866862.

77 Sattin RW. Falls among older persons: a public health perspective. Annu Rev Public Health 1992;13:489-508. doi:10.1146/annurev. pu.13.050192.002421 pmid:1599600.

78 Quach L, Galica AM, Jones RN, et al. The nonlinear relationship between gait speed and falls: the Maintenance of Balance, Independent Living, Intellect, and Zest in the Elderly of Boston Study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2011;59:1069-73. doi:10.1111/j.1532- 5415.2011.03408.x pmid:21649615.

79 Cesari M. Role of gait speed in the assessment of older patients. JAMA 2011;305:93-4. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.1970 pmid:21205972.

80 Viccaro LJ, Perera S, Studenski SA. Is timed up and go better than gait speed in predicting health, function, and falls in older adults?J Am Geriatr Soc 2011;59:887-92. doi:10.1111/j.1532- 5415.2011.03336.x pmid:21410448.

81 Berg K, Wood-Dauphine S, Williams JI, Gayton D. Measuring balance in the elderly: preliminary development of an instrument. Physiother Can 1989;41:304-11. doi:10.3138/ptc.41.6.304

82 Muir SW, Berg K, Chesworth B, Speechley M. Use of the Berg Balance Scale for predicting multiple falls in community-dwelling elderly people: a prospective study. Phys Ther 2008;88:449-59. doi:10.2522/ ptj.20070251 pmid:18218822.

83 Riddle DL, Stratford PW. Interpreting validity indexes for diagnostic tests: an illustration using the Berg balance test. Phys Ther 1999;79:939- 48.pmid:10499967.

84 Tinetti ME, Williams TF, Mayewski R. Fall risk index for elderly patients based on number of chronic disabilities. Am J Med 1986;80:429-34. doi:10.1016/0002-9343(86)90717-5 pmid:3953620.

85 Cumming RG, Thomas M, Szonyi G, et al. Home visits by an occupational therapist for assessment and modification of environmental hazards: a randomized trial of falls prevention. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999;47:1397- 402. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.1999.tb01556.x pmid:10591231.

86 Turner S, Arthur G, Lyons RA, et al. Modification of the home environment for the reduction of injuries. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011;2:CD003600.pmid:21328262.

87 Keall MD, Pierse N, Howden-Chapman P, et al. Home modifications to reduce injuries from falls in the home injury prevention intervention (HIPI) study: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2015;385:231-8. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61006- 0 pmid:25255696.

88 Department of Health and Human Services Older Adults, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Check for safety. A home fall prevention checklist for older adults. 2005. http://www.cdc.gov/ HomeandRecreationalSafety/pubs/English/booklet_Eng_desktop-a. pdf.

89 US Department of Health and Human Services. Preventing falls at home. http://www.eldercare.gov/eldercare.net/public/resources/brochures/ docs/preventing_falls_brochure_pagebypage.pdf.

90 National Safety Council. Older adult fall prevention checklist. http:// www.nsc.org/NSCDocuments_Advocacy/Fact%20Sheets/Slips-Trips-and-Falls.pdf.

91 Kiel DP. Falls: prevention in community-dwelling older persons. UpToDate 2014. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/falls-prevention-in-community-dwelling-older-persons.

92 Stevens JA. A CDC compendium of effective fall interventions: what works for community-dwelling older adults. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2010. http://www.cdc.gov/homeandrecreationalsafety/falls/ compendium.html.

93 Carande-Kulis V, Stevens JA, Florence CS, Beattie BL, Arias I. A cost-benefit analysis of three older adult fall prevention interventions. J Safety Res 2015;52:65-70. doi:10.1016/j.jsr.2014.12.007 pmid:25662884.

94 Church J, Goodall S, Norman R, Haas M. The cost-effectiveness of falls prevention interventions for older community-dwelling Australians. Aust N Z J Public Health 2012;36:241-8.. doi:10.1111/j.1753- 6405.2011.00811.x pmid:22672030.

95 Goodwin VA, Abbott RA, Whear R, et al. Multiple component interventions for preventing falls and fall-related injuries among older people: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Geriatr 2014;14:15. doi:10.1186/1471-2318-14-15 pmid:24495705.

96 Moyer VA. US Preventive Services Task Force. Prevention of falls in community-dwelling older adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med 2012;157:197-204. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-157-3-201208070-00462 pmid:22868837.

97 Shaw FE, Bond J, Richardson DA, et al. Multifactorial intervention after a fall in older people with cognitive impairment and dementia presenting to the accident and emergency department: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2003;326:73. doi:10.1136/bmj.326.7380.73 pmid:12521968.

98 Sekulic S, Podgorac J, Kekovic G, Zarkov M, Kopitovic A. Significance of adequate postural control in the appearance of habitual upright bipedal locomotion. Med Hypotheses 2012;79:564-71. doi:10.1016/j. mehy.2012.07.019 pmid:22883956.

99 Hackney ME, Wolf SL. Impact of Tai Chi Chu’an practice on balance and mobility in older adults: an integrative review of 20 years of research. J Geriatr Phys Ther 2014;37:127-35. doi:10.1519/ JPT.0b013e3182abe784 pmid:24406709.

100 El-Khoury F, Cassou B, Charles MA, Dargent-Molina P. The effect of fall prevention exercise programmes on fall induced injuries in community dwelling older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 2013;347:f6234.pmid:24169944.

101 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A CDC compendium of effective fall interventions: what works for community-dwelling older adults. 2015. http://www.cdc.gov/homeandrecreationalsafety/ pdf/falls/cdc_falls_compendium-2015-a.pdf

102 Campbell AJ, Robertson MC, Gardner MM, Norton RN, Tilyard MW, Buchner DM. Randomised controlled trial of a general practice programme of home based exercise to prevent falls in elderly women. BMJ 1997;315:1065-9. doi:10.1136/bmj.315.7115.1065 pmid:9366737.

103 Campbell AJ. Preventing falls by dealing with the causes. Med J Aust 1997;167:407-8.pmid:9364153.

104 Campbell AJ, Robertson MC, Gardner MM, Norton RN, Buchner DM. Falls prevention over 2 years: a randomized controlled trial in women 80 years and older. Age Ageing 1999;28:513-8. doi:10.1093/ ageing/28.6.513 pmid:10604501.

105 Robertson MC, Devlin N, Gardner MM, Campbell AJ. Effectiveness and economic evaluation of a nurse delivered home exercise programme to prevent falls. 1: Randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2001;322:697-701. doi:10.1136/bmj.322.7288.697 pmid:11264206.

 

Comentarios

Para ver los comentarios de sus colegas o para expresar su opinión debe ingresar con su cuenta de IntraMed.

AAIP RNBD
Términos y condiciones de uso | Todos los derechos reservados | Copyright 1997-2022