Revisión de la clínica e importancia de su diagnóstico temprano | 22 DIC 14

Trastorno límite de la personalidad en la adolescencia

Es un trastorno mental grave que se caracteriza por un patrón dominante de inestabilidad en la regulación del afecto, el control del impulso, las relaciones interpersonales, y la imagen de sí mismo.
Autor/a: Michael Kaess, Romuald Brunner and Andrew Chanen Pediatrics 2014; 134; 782
INDICE:  1. Desarrollo | 2. Referencias


1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013
2. Leichsenring F, Leibing E, Kruse J, New AS, Leweke F. Borderline personality disorder. Lancet. 2011;377(9759):74–84
3. Chanen AM, McCutcheon LK. Personality disorder in adolescence: The diagnosis that dare not speak its name. Pers Ment Health. 2008;2(1):35–41
4. Chanen AM, Jovev M, McCutcheon LK, Jackson HJ, McGorry PD. Borderline personality disorder in young people and the Basic Principles of Early Intervention in Adolescent BPD prospects for prevention and early intervention. Curr Psychiatry Rev. 2008;4(1): 48–57
5. Miller AL, Muehlenkamp JJ, Jacobson CM. Fact or fiction: diagnosing borderline personality disorder in adolescents. Clin Psychol Rev. 2008;28(6):969–981
6. Chanen AM, Jackson HJ, McGorry PD, Allot KA, Clarkson V, Yuen HP. Two-year stability of personality disorder in older adolescent outpatients. J Pers Disord. 2004;18 (6):526–541
7. Kaess M, von Ceumern-Lindenstjerna I-A, Parzer P, et al. Axis I and II comorbidity and psychosocial functioning in female adolescents with borderline personality disorder. Psychopathology. 2013;46(1): 55–62
8. Chanen AM, Jovev M, Jackson HJ. Adaptive functioning and psychiatric symptoms in adolescents with borderline personality disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68(2): 297–306
9. Chanen AM, McCutcheon L. Prevention and early intervention for borderline personality disorder: current status and recent evidence. Br J Psychiatry Suppl. 2013;54:s24–s29
10. National Health and Medical Research Council. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Borderline Personality Disorder. Melbourne, Australia: National Health and Medical Research Council; 2012
11. National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health. Borderline Personality Disorder: Treatment and Management NICE Clinical Guideline. London, UK: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence; 2009
12. Tyrer P, Crawford M, Mulder R; ICD-11 Working Group for the Revision of Classification of Personality Disorders. Reclassifying personality disorders. Lancet. 2011; 377(9780):1814–1815
13. Johnson JG, Cohen P, Kasen S, Skodol AE, Oldham JM. Cumulative prevalence of personality disorders between adolescence and adulthood. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2008; 118(5):410–413
14. Lewinsohn PM, Rohde P, Seeley JR, Klein DN. Axis II psychopathology as a function of Axis I disorders in childhood and adolescence. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997;36(12):1752–1759
15. Coid J, Yang M, Tyrer P, Roberts A, Ullrich S. Prevalence and correlates of personality disorder in Great Britain. Br J Psychiatry. 2006;188:423–431
16. Trull TJ, Jahng S, Tomko RL, Wood PK, Sher KJ. Revised NESARC personality disorder diagnoses: gender, prevalence, and comorbidity with substance dependence disorders. J Pers Disord. 2010;24(4):412–426
17. Chanen AM, Jovev M, Djaja D, et al. Screening for borderline personality disorder in outpatient youth. J Pers Disord. 2008;22(4):353–364
18. Grilo CM, Becker DF, Fehon DC, Walker ML, Edell WS, McGlashan TH. Gender differences in personality disorders in psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Am J Psychiatry. 1996;153(8):1089–1091
19. Lenzenweger MF, Lane MC, Loranger AW, Kessler RC. DSM-IV personality disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;62(6):553– 564
20. Torgersen S, Kringlen E, Cramer V. The prevalence of personality disorders in a community sample. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58(6):590–596
21. Zanarini MC, Horwood J, Wolke D, Waylen A, Fitzmaurice G, Grant BF. Prevalence of DSM-IV borderline personality disorder in two community samples: 6,330 English 11-year-olds and 34,653 American adults. J Pers Disord. 2011;25(5):607–619
22. Skodol AE, Bender DS. Why are women diagnosed borderline more than men? Psychiatr Q. 2003;74(4):349–360
23. Tackett JL, Balsis S, Oltmanns TF, Krueger RF. A unifying perspective on personality pathology across the life span: developmental considerations for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Dev Psychopathol. 2009;21(3):687–713
24. Cohen P, Crawford TN, Johnson JG, Kasen S. The children in the community study of
developmental course of personality disorder. J Pers Disord. 2005;19(5):466–486
25. Gunderson JG, Stout RL, McGlashan TH, et al. Ten-year course of borderline personality disorder: psychopathology and function from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011;68(8):827–837
26. Zanarini MC, Frankenburg FR, Reich DB, Fitzmaurice G. Attainment and stability of sustained symptomatic remission and recovery among patients with borderline personality disorder and axis II comparison subjects: a 16-year prospective followup study. Am J Psychiatry. 2012;169(5): 476–483
27. Chanen AM, Kaess M. Developmental pathways to borderline personality disorder. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2012;14(1):45–53
28. Zanarini MC, Frankenburg FR, Reich DB, Fitzmaurice G, Weinberg I, Gunderson JG. The 10-year course of physically self-destructive acts reported by borderline patients and axis II comparison subjects. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2008;117(3):177–184
29. Glenn CR, Klonsky ED. Prospective prediction of nonsuicidal self-injury: a 1-year longitudinal study in young adults. Behav Ther. 2011;42(4):751–762
30. Wilcox HC, Arria AM, Caldeira KM, Vincent KB, Pinchevsky GM, O’Grady KE. Longitudinal
predictors of past-year non-suicidal self-injury and motives among college students. Psychol Med. 2012;42(4):717–726
31. Yen S, Weinstock LM, Andover MS, Sheets ES, Selby EA, Spirito A. Prospective predictors
of adolescent suicidality: 6-month post-hospitalization follow-up. Psychol Med. 2013;43(5):983–993
32. Kullgren G, Renberg E, Jacobsson L. An empirical study of borderline personality disorder and psychiatric suicides. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1986;174(6):328–331
33. Runeson B, Beskow J. Borderline personality disorder in young Swedish suicides. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1991;179(3):153–156
34. Pompili M, Girardi P, Ruberto A, Tatarelli R. Suicide in borderline personality disorder:
a meta-analysis. Nord J Psychiatry. 2005;59 (5):319–324
35. Paris J, Zweig-Frank H. A 27-year follow-up of patients with borderline personality disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 2001;42(6):482–487
36. Chen EY, Brown MZ, Lo TTY, Linehan MM. Sexually transmitted disease rates and high-risk sexual behaviors in borderline personality disorder versus borderline personality disorder with substance use disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2007;195(2):125–129
37. Feenstra DJ, Hutsebaut J, Laurenssen EMP, Verheul R, Busschbach JJV, Soeteman DI. The burden of disease among adolescents with personality pathology: quality of life and costs. J Pers Disord. 2012;26(4):593–604
38. Crawford TN, Cohen P, First MB, Skodol AE, Johnson JG, Kasen S. Comorbid Axis I and Axis II disorders in early adolescence: outcomes 20 years later. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008;65(6):641–648
39. Winograd G, Cohen P, Chen H. Adolescent borderline symptoms in the community: prognosis for functioning over 20 years. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2008;49(9): 933–941
40. Zanarini MC, Frankenburg FR, Hennen J, Reich DB, Silk KR. Axis I comorbidity in patients with borderline personality disorder: 6-year follow-up and prediction of time to remission. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161(11):2108–2114
41. Cailhol L, Jeannot M, Rodgers R, et al. Borderline personality disorder and mental healthcare service use among adolescents. J Pers Disord. 2013;27(2):252–259
42. Bender DS, Dolan RT, Skodol AE, et al. Treatment utilization by patients with personality disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158(2):295–302
43. Oldham JM. Borderline personality disorder and suicidality. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163(1):20–26
44. Chen H, Cohen P, Crawford TN, Kasen S, Guan B, Gorden K. Impact of early adolescent psychiatric and personality disorder on long-term physical health: a 20-year
longitudinal follow-up study. Psychol Med. 2009;39(5):865–874
45. Miller JD, Morse JQ, Nolf K, Stepp SD, Pilkonis PA. Can DSM-IV borderline personality disorder be diagnosed via dimensional personality traits? Implications for the DSM-5 personality disorder proposal. J Abnorm Psychol. 2012;121(4):944–950
46. Chanen AM, Velakoulis D, Carison K, et al. Orbitofrontal, amygdala and hippocampal volumes in teenagers with first-presentation borderline personality disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2008;163(2):116–125
47. Kendler KS, Aggen SH, Czajkowski N, et al. The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for DSM-IV personality disorders: a multivariate twin study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008;65(12):1438–1446
48. Kaess M, Resch F, Parzer P, von Ceumern- Lindenstjerna I-A, Henze R, Brunner R. Temperamental patterns in female adolescents with borderline personality disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2013;201(2):109–115
49. Distel MA, Middeldorp CM, Trull TJ, Derom CA, Willemsen G, Boomsma DI. Life events and borderline personality features: the
influence of gene-environment interaction and gene-environment correlation. Psychol Med. 2011;41(4):849–860
50. Bornovalova MA, Hicks BM, Iacono WG, McGue M. Stability, change, and heritability of borderline personality disorder traits from adolescence to adulthood: a longitudinal twin study. Dev Psychopathol. 2009;21(4):1335–1353
51. Hankin BL, Barrocas AL, Jenness J, et al. Association between 5-HTTLPR and borderline personality disorder traits among youth. Front Psychiatry. 2011;2:6
52. Brunner R, Henze R, Parzer P, et al. Reduced prefrontal and orbitofrontal gray matter in female adolescents with borderline personality disorder: is it disorder specific? Neuroimage. 2010;49(1):114–120
53. Goodman M, Hazlett EA, Avedon JB, Siever DR, Chu K-W, New AS. Anterior cingulate volume reduction in adolescents with borderline personality disorder and comorbid major depression. J Psychiatr Res. 2011;45(6):803–807
54. Whittle S, Chanen AM, Fornito A, McGorry PD, Pantelis C, Yücel M. Anterior cingulate volume in adolescents with first-presentation borderline personality disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2009;172(2):155–160
55. New AS, Carpenter DM, Perez-Rodriguez MM, et al. Developmental differences in diffusion tensor imaging parameters in borderline personality disorder. J Psychiatr Res. 2013;47(8):1101–1109
56. Maier-Hein KH, Brunner R, Lutz K, et al. Disorder-specific white matter alterations in adolescent borderline personality disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2014;75(1):81–88
57. Stiglmayr CE, Ebner-Priemer UW, Bretz J, et al. Dissociative symptoms are positively related to stress in borderline personality disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2008;117 (2):139–147
58. Stiglmayr CE, Grathwol T, Linehan MM, Ihorst G, Fahrenberg J, Bohus M. Aversive tension in patients with borderline personality disorder: a computer-based controlled field study. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2005;111(5):372–379
59. Zimmerman DJ, Choi-Kain LW. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in borderline personality disorder: a review. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2009;17(3):167–183
60. Nater UM, Bohus M, Abbruzzese E, et al. Increased psychological and attenuated cortisol and alpha-amylase responses to acute psychosocial stress in female patients with borderline personality disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2010;35 (10):1565–1572
61. Kaess M, Hille M, Parzer P, Maser-Gluth C, Resch F, Brunner R. Alterations in the neuroendocrinological stress response to acute psychosocial stress in adolescents engaging in nonsuicidal self-injury. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2012;37(1): 157–161
62. Jovev M, Garner B, Phillips L, et al. An MRI study of pituitary volume and parasuicidal behavior in teenagers with first-presentation borderline personality disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2008;162(3):273–277
63. Crone EA, Ridderinkhof KR. The developing brain: from theory to neuroimaging and back. Dev Cogn Neurosci. 2011;1(2):101–109
64. Cicchetti D, Rogosch FA. Gene 3 environment interaction and resilience: effects of child maltreatment and serotonin, corticotropin releasing hormone, dopamine, and oxytocin genes. Dev Psychopathol. 2012;24(2):411–427
65. von Ceumern-Lindenstjerna I-A, Brunner R, Parzer P, Mundt C, Fiedler P, Resch F. Initial orienting to emotional faces in female adolescents with borderline personality disorder. Psychopathology. 2010; 43(2):79–87
66. Jovev M, Chanen A, Green M, et al. Emotional sensitivity in youth with borderline
personality pathology. Psychiatry Res. 2011;187(1-2):234–240
67. von Ceumern-Lindenstjerna I-A, Brunner R, Parzer P, Mundt C, Fiedler P, Resch F. Attentional bias in later stages of emotional information processing in female adolescents with borderline personality disorder. Psychopathology. 2010;43(1):25–32
68. Jennings TC, Hulbert CA, Jackson HJ, Chanen AM. Social perspective coordination in youth
with borderline personality pathology. J Pers Disord. 2012;26(1):126–140
69. Sharp C, Pane H, Ha C, Venta A, Patel AB, Sturek J, et al. Theory of mind and emotion
regulation difficulties in adolescents with borderline traits. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011;50(6):563–573.e1
70. Sharp C, Ha C, Carbone C, et al. Hypermentalizing in adolescent inpatients: treatment effects and association with borderline traits. J Pers Disord. 2013;27(1): 3–18
71. Lawrence KA, Allen JS, Chanen AM. Impulsivity in borderline personality disorder: reward-based decision-making and its relationship to emotional distress. J Pers Disord. 2010;24(6):786–799
72. Cohen P, Chen H, Gordon K, Johnson J, Brook J, Kasen S. Socioeconomic background and the developmental course of schizotypal and borderline personality disorder symptoms. Dev Psychopathol. 2008;20(2):633–650
73. Zanarini MC, Williams AA, Lewis RE, et al. Reported pathological childhood experiences
associated with the development of borderline personality disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1997;154(8):1101–1106
74. Afifi TO, Mather A, Boman J, et al. Childhood adversity and personality disorders: results from a nationally representative population-based study. J Psychiatr Res. 2011;45(6):814–822
75. Carlson EA, Egeland B, Sroufe LA. A prospective investigation of the development of borderline personality symptoms. Dev Psychopathol. 2009;21(4):1311–1334
76. Johnson JG, Cohen P, Brown J, Smailes EM, Bernstein DP. Childhood maltreatment increases risk for personality disorders during early adulthood. Arch Gen Psychiatry.
77. Winsper C, Zanarini M, Wolke D. Prospective study of family adversity and maladaptive parenting in childhood and borderline personality disorder symptoms in a non-clinical population at 11 years. Psychol Med. 2012;42(11):2405–2420
78. Kaess M, Parzer P, Mattern M, et al. Adverse childhood experiences and their impact on frequency, severity, and the individual function of nonsuicidal selfinjury in youth. Psychiatry Res. 2013;206 (2–3):265–272
79. Fossati A, Madeddu F, Maffei C. Borderline personality disorder and childhood sexual abuse: a meta-analytic study. J Pers Disord. 1999;13(3):268–280
80. Bradley R, Jenei J, Westen D. Etiology of borderline personality disorder: disentangling the contributions of intercorrelated antecedents. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2005;193(1):24–31
81. Crowell SE, Beauchaine TP, Linehan MM. A biosocial developmental model of borderline personality: Elaborating and extending Linehan’s theory. Psychol Bull. 2009;135(3):495–510
82. Sansone RA, Lam C, Wiederman MW. Being bullied in childhood: correlations with borderline personality in adulthood. Compr Psychiatry. 2010;51(5):458–461
83. Wolke D, Schreier A, Zanarini MC, Winsper C. Bullied by peers in childhood and borderline personality symptoms at 11 years of age: a prospective study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2012;53(8):846–855
84. Lereya ST, Winsper C, Heron J, Lewis G, Gunnell D, Fisher HL, et al. Being bullied during childhood and the prospective pathways to self-harm in late adolescence. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013;52(6):608–618.e2
85. Linehan M. Cognitive Behavior Therapy of Borderline Personality Disorder. New York, NY: Guilford; 1993
86. Patel V, Flisher AJ, Hetrick S, McGorry P. Mental health of young people: a global public-health challenge. Lancet. 2007;369 (9569):1302–1313
87. McGorry P. Early clinical phenotypes and risk for serious mental disorders in young people: need for care precedes traditional diagnoses in mood and psychotic disorders. Can J Psychiatry. 2013; 58(1):19–21
88. Aviram RB, Brodsky BS, Stanley B. Borderline personality disorder, stigma, and treatment implications. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2006;14(5):249–256
89. Rüsch N, Hölzer A, Hermann C, et al. Selfstigma in women with borderline personality disorder and women with social phobia. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2006;194(10):766–773
90. Sharp C, Romero C. Borderline personality disorder: a comparison between children and adults. Bull Menninger Clin. 2007;71(2):85–114
91. Lawrence KA, Allen JS, Chanen A. A study of maladaptive schemas and borderline personality disorder in young people. Cognit Ther Res. 2011;35(1):30–39
92. Zimmerman M, Chelminski I, Young D, Dalrymple K, Martinez J. Does the presence of one feature of borderline personality disorder have clinical significance? Implications for dimensional ratings of personality disorders. J Clin Psychiatry. 2012;73(1):8–12
93. Widiger TA, Simonsen E. Alternative dimensional models of personality disorder: finding a common ground. J Pers Disord. 2005;19(2):110–130
94. Schmeck K, Schlüter-Müller S, Foelsch PA, Doering S. The role of identity in the DSM-5 classification of personality disorders. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2013;7(1):27
95. Chanen AM, McCutcheon LK, Germano D, Nistico H, Jackson HJ, McGorry PD. The HYPE Clinic: an early intervention service for borderline personality disorder. J Psychiatr Pract. 2009;15(3):163–172
96. First MB, Spitzer RL, Gibbon M, Williams BW. User’s Guide for the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-IV). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press; 1996
97. Loranger AW. International Personality Disorder Examination: DSM-IV and ICD-10 Interviews. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources; 1999
98. Henze R, Barth J, Parzer P, et al. Validation of a screening instrument for borderline personality disorder in adolescents and young adults—psychometric properties and association with the patient’s selfesteem [in German]. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 2013;81(6):324–330
99. Zanarini MC. The Childhood Interview for DSM-IV Borderline Personality Disorder (CI-BPD). Belmont, MA: McLean Hospital and Harvard Medical School; 2003
100. Sharp C, Ha C, Michonski J, Venta A, Carbone C. Borderline personality disorder in adolescents: evidence in support of the Childhood Interview for DSM-IV borderline personality disorder in a sample of adolescent inpatients. Compr Psychiatry. 2012;53(6):765–774
101. Poreh AM, Rawlings D, Claridge G, Freeman JL, Faulkner C, Shelton C. The BPQ: a scale for the assessment of borderline personality based on DSM-IV criteria. J Pers Disord. 2006;20(3):247–260
102. Noblin JL, Venta A, Sharp C. The validity of the MSI-BPD among inpatient adolescents. Assessment. 2013;21(2):210–217
103. Sharp C, Mosko O, Chang B, Ha C. The cross-informant concordance and concurrent validity of the Borderline Personality Features Scale for Children in a community sample of boys. Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2011;16(3):335–349
104. Chang B, Sharp C, Ha C. The criterion validity of the Borderline Personality Features Scale for Children in an adolescent inpatient setting. J Pers Disord. 2011;25 (4):492–503
105. Morey LC. Personality Assessment Inventory—Adolescents Professional Manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resource 2007
106. Linde JA, Stringer D, Simms LJ, Clark LA. The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality for Youth (SNAP-Y): a new measure for assessing adolescent personality and personality pathology. Assessment. 2013;20(4):387–404
107. Schuppert HM, Bloo J, Minderaa RB, Emmelkamp PMG, Nauta MH. Psychometric evaluation of the Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index-IV—adolescent version and parent version. J Pers Disord. 2012;26(4):628–640
108. Ruggero CJ, Zimmerman M, Chelminski I, Young D. Borderline personality disorder and the misdiagnosis of bipolar disorder. J Psychiatr Res. 2010;44(6):405–408
109. Paris J. Personality disorders and mood disorders: phenomenological resemblances vs. pathogenetic pathways. J Pers Disord. 2010;24(1):3–13
110. Bayes A, Parker G, Fletcher K. Clinical differentiation of bipolar II disorder from borderline personality disorder. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2014;27(1):14–20
111. Parker G. Is borderline personality disorder a mood disorder? Br J Psychiatry. 2014;204: 252–253
112. Renaud S, Corbalan F, Beaulieu S. Differential diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder type II and borderline personality disorder: analysis of the affective dimension. Compr Psychiatry. 2012;53(7):952–961
113. Nock MK, Joiner TE Jr, Gordon KH, Lloyd-Richardson E, Prinstein MJ. Non-suicidal self-injury among adolescents: diagnostic correlates and relation to suicide attempts. Psychiatry Res. 2006;144(1):65–72
114. Yen S, Shea MT, Battle CL, et al. Traumatic exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder in borderline, schizotypal, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders: findings from the collaborative longitudinal personality disorders study. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2002;190(8):510–518
115. Lenzenweger MF, Desantis Castro D. Predicting change in borderline personality: Using neurobehavioral systems indicators within an individual growth curve framework. Dev Psychopathol. 2005;17(4):1207–1237
116. Chanen AM, Jackson HJ, McCutcheon LK, et al. Early intervention for adolescents with borderline personality disorder using cognitive analytic therapy: randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry. 2008;193 (6):477–484
117. Schuppert HM, Giesen-Bloo J, van Gemert TG, et al. Effectiveness of an emotion regulation group training for adolescents— a randomized controlled pilot study. Clin Psychol Psychother. 2009;16(6):467–478
118. Cuijpers P. Examining the effects of prevention programs on the incidence of new cases of mental disorders: the lack of statistical power. Am J Psychiatry. 2003; 160(8):1385–1391
119. Kaess M, Fischer G, Parzer P, Resch F, Brunner R. Is detection and treatment of adolescent self-harm a suitable strategy for the treatment of borderline personality disorder? Presented at the International Congress for Borderline Personality Disorder; 2014
120. Ryle A, Kerr IB. Introducing Cognitive Analytic Therapy: Principles and Practice. Chichester, UK: Wiley; 2002
121. Chanen AM, Jackson HJ, McCutcheon LK, et al. Early intervention for adolescents with borderline personality disorder: quasi-experimental comparison with treatment as usual. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2009; 43(5):397–408
122. Blum N, St John D, Pfohl B, et al. Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) for outpatients with borderline personality disorder: a randomized controlled trial and 1-year follow-up. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165(4): 468–478
123. Schuppert HM, Timmerman ME, Bloo J, et al. Emotion regulation training for adolescents with borderline personality disorder traits: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012;51(12):1314–1323.e2
124. Bateman A, Fonagy P. Mentalization based treatment for borderline personality disorder. World Psychiatry. 2010;9(1):11–15
125. Rossouw TI, Fonagy P. Mentalization-based treatment for self-harm in adolescents: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012;51(12): 1304–1313.e3
126. Rathus JH, Miller AL. Dialectical behavior therapy adapted for suicidal adolescents. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2002;32(2):146–157
127. Fleischhaker C, Böhme R, Sixt B, Brück C, Schneider C, Schulz E. Dialectical behavioral therapy for adolescents (DBT-A): a clinical trial for patients with suicidal and self-injurious behavior and borderline symptoms with a one-year follow-up. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2011;5(1):3
128. Goldstein TR, Axelson DA, Birmaher B, Brent DA. Dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents with bipolar disorder: a 1-year open trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007;46(7):820–830
129. Mehlum L. Study NCT00675129: Treatment for adolescents with deliberate self-harm. Available at: Accessed April 10, 2014
130. Clarkin JF, Foelsch PA, Levy KN, Hull JW, Delaney JC, Kernberg OF. The development of a psychodynamic treatment for patients with borderline personality disorder: a preliminary study of behavioral change. J Pers Disord. 2001;15(6):487–495
131. Foelsch PA, Odom AE, Kernberg OF. Treatment of adolescents with identity diffusion: a modification of transference focused psychotherapy [in French]. Sante Ment Que. 2008;33(1):37–60
132. Biskin RS. Treatment of borderline personality disorder in youth. J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013;22(3):230–234
133. Stoffers J, Völlm BA, Rücker G, Timmer A, Huband N, Lieb K. Pharmacological interventions for borderline personality disorder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(6):
134. Amminger GP, Chanen AM, Ohmann S, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in adolescents with borderline personality disorder and ultra-high risk criteria for psychosis: a post hoc subgroup analysis of a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Can J Psychiatry. 2013;58(7):402–408



Usted debe ingresar al sitio con su cuenta de usuario IntraMed para ver los comentarios de sus colegas o para expresar su opinión. Si ya tiene una cuenta IntraMed o desea registrase, ingrese aquí