Carga alostática y enfermedad | 23 NOV 20

Nuevos aportes al concepto del estrés

Implicancias del estrés en los trastornos afectivos. y otros padecimientos
INDICE:  1. Texto principal | 2. Referencias bibliográficas
Referencias bibliográficas

Akana SF, Jacobson L, Cascio CS, Shinsako J, Dallman MF (1988) Constant corticosterone replacement normalizes basal adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) but permits sustained ACTH hypersecretion after stress in adrenalectomized rats. Endocrinology 122:1337–1342.

Akil H, Watson SJ, Young E, Lewis ME, Khachaturian H, Walker JM (1984) Endogenous opioids: biology and function. Annu Rev Neurosci 7:223– 255.

 Akil H, Gordon J, Hen R, Javitch J, Mayberg H, McEwen B, Meaney MJ, Nestler EJ (2018) Treatment resistant depression: a multi-scale, systems biology approach. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 84:272–288.

Arriza JL, Weinberger C, Cerelli G, Glaser TM, Handelin BL, Housman DE, Evans RM (1987) Cloning of human mineralocorticoid receptor complementary DNA: structural and functional kinship with the glucocorticoid receptor. Science 237:268 –275.

 Aurbach EL, Inui EG, Turner CA, Hagenauer MH, Prater KE, Li JZ, Absher D, Shah N, Blandino P Jr, Bunney WE, Myers RM, Barchas JD, Schatzberg AF, Watson SJ Jr, Akil H (2015) Fibroblast growth factor 9 is a novel modulator of negative affect. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112:11953–11958.

Bale TL, Abel T, Akil H, Carlezon WA Jr, Moghaddam B, Nestler EJ, Ressler KJ, Thompson SM (2019) The critical importance of basic animal research for neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology 44: 1349 –1353.

 Bath KG, Schilit A, Lee FS (2013) Stress effects on BDNF expression: effects of age, sex, and form of stress. Neuroscience 239:149 –156.

 Bennur S, Shankaranarayana Rao BS, Pawlak R, Strickland S, McEwen BS, Chattarji S (2007) Stress-induced spine loss in the medial amygdala is mediated by tissue-plasminogen activator. Neuroscience 144:8 –16.

 Bradbury MJ, Akana SF, Cascio CS, Levin N, Jacobson L, Dallman MF (1991) Regulation of basal ACTH secretion by corticosterone is mediated by both type I (MR) and type II (GR) receptors in ratbrain. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 40:133–142.

Bunney BG, Li JZ, Walsh DM, Stein R, Vawter MP, Cartagena P, Barchas JD, Schatzberg AF, Myers RM, Watson SJ, Akil H, Bunney WE (2015) Circadian dysregulation of clock genes: clues to rapid treatments in major depressive disorder. Mol Psychiatry 20:48 –55.


Chattarji S, Tomar A, Suvrathan A, Ghosh S, Rahman MM (2015) Neighborhood matters: divergent patterns of stress-induced plasticity across the brain. Nat Neurosci 18:1364 –1375.

 Chaudhury S, Aurbach EL, Sharma V, Blandino P Jr, Turner CA, Watson SJ, Akil H (2014) FGF2 is a target and a trigger of epigenetic mechanisms associated with differences in emotionality: partnership with H3K9me3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:11834 –11839.

 Chen ZY, Jing D, Bath KG, Ieraci A, Khan T, Siao CJ, Herrera DG, Toth M, Yang C, McEwen BS, Hempstead BL, Lee FS (2006) Genetic variant BDNF (Val66Met) polymorphism alters anxiety-related behavior. Science 314:140 –143.

Cho K (2001) Chronic “jet lag” produces temporal lobe atrophy and spatial cognitive deficits. Nat Neurosci 4:567–568.

Cullinan WE, Herman JP, Watson SJ (1993) Ventral subicular interaction with the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus: evidence for a relay in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. J Comp Neurol 332:1–20.

 de Leon MJ, McRae T, Tsai J, George A, Marcus D, Freedman M, Wolf AP, McEwen B (1988) Abnormal cortisol response in Alzheimer’s disease linked to hippocampal atrophy. Lancet 2:391–392.

 Draganski B, Gaser C, Kempermann G, Kuhn HG, Winkler J, Bu¨chel C, May A (2006) Temporal and spatial dynamics of brain structure changes during extensive learning. J Neurosci 26:6314 –6317.

riessen M, Herrmann J, Stahl K, Zwaan M, Meier S, Hill A, Osterheider M, Petersen D (2000) Magnetic resonance imaging volumes of the hippocampus and the amygdala in women with borderline personality disorder and early traumatization. Arch Gen Psychiatry 57:1115–1122.

 Erickson KI, Voss MW, Prakash RS, Basak C, Szabo A, Chaddock L, Kim JS, Heo S, Alves H, White SM, Wojcicki TR, Mailey E, Vieira VJ, Martin SA, Pence BD, Woods JA, McAuley E, Kramer AF (2011) Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:3017–3022.

Evans SJ, Choudary PV, Neal CR, Li JZ, Vawter MP, Tomita H, Lopez JF, Thompson RC, Meng F, Stead JD, Walsh DM, Myers RM, Bunney WE, Watson SJ, Jones EG, Akil H (2004) Dysregulation of the fibroblast growth factor system in major depression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101: 15506 –15511.

Fitzgerald PJ, Yen JY, Watson BO (2019) Stress-sensitive antidepressantlike effects of ketamine in the mouse forced swim test. PLoS One 14: e0215554.

 Gee CE, Chen CL, Roberts JL, Thompson R, Watson SJ (1983) Identification of proopiomelanocortin neurones in rat hypothalamus by in situ cDNA-mRNA hybridization. Nature 306:374 –376.

Geschwind DH, Flint J (2015) Genetics and genomics of psychiatric disease. Science 349:1489 –1494.

 Gianaros PJ, Jennings JR, Sheu LK, Greer PJ, Kuller LH, Matthews KA (2007a) Prospective reports of chronic life stress predict decreased grey matter volume in the hippocampus. Neuroimage 35:795–803.

Gianaros PJ, Horenstein JA, Cohen S, Matthews KA, Brown SM, Flory JD, Critchley HD, Manuck SB, Hariri AR (2007b) Perigenual anterior cingulate morphology covaries with perceived social standing. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2:161–173.

 Gianaros PJ, Horenstein JA, Hariri AR, Sheu LK, Manuck SB, Matthews KA, Cohen S (2008) Potential neural embedding of parental social standing. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 3:91–96.

Gianaros PJ, Marsland AL, Kuan DC, Schirda BL, Jennings JR, Sheu LK, Hariri AR, Gross JJ, Manuck SB (2014) An inflammatory pathway links atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk to neural activity evoked by the cognitive regulation of emotion. Biol Psychiatry 75:738 –745.

 Gjerstad JK, Lightman SL, Spiga F (2018) Role of glucocorticoid negative feedback in the regulation of HPA axis pulsatility. Stress 21:403–416.

Gold SM, Dziobek I, Sweat V, Tirsi A, Rogers K, Bruehl H, Tsui W, Richardson S, Javier E, Convit A (2007) Hippocampal damage and memory impairments as possible early brain complications of type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia 50:711–719.

 Goldwater DS, Pavlides C, Hunter RG, Bloss EB, Hof PR, McEwen BS, Morrison JH (2009) Structural and functional alterations to rat medial prefrontal cortex following chronic restraint stress and recovery. Neuroscience 164:798 –808.


Govindarajan A, Rao BS, Nair D, Trinh M, Mawjee N, Tonegawa S, Chattarji S (2006) Transgenic brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression causes both anxiogenic and antidepressant effects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:13208 –13213

. Gray JD, Rubin TG, Hunter RG, McEwen BS (2014) Hippocampal gene expression changes underlying stress sensitization and recovery. Mol Psychiatry 19:1171–1178.

Gunduz-Cinar O, Hill MN, McEwen BS, Holmes A (2013) Amygdala FAAH and anandamide: mediating protection and recovery from stress. Trends Pharmacol Sci 34:637–644.

 Halfon N, Larson K, Lu M, Tullis E, Russ S (2014) Lifecourse health development: past, present and future. Matern Child Health J 18:344 –365.

 Hebda-Bauer EK, Pletsch A, Darwish H, Fentress H, Simmons TA, Wei Q, Watson SJ, Akil H (2010) Forebrain glucocorticoid receptor overexpression increases environmental reactivity and produces a stressinduced spatial discrimination deficit. Neuroscience 169:645–653.

 Herman JP, Patel PD, Akil H, Watson SJ (1989) Localization and regulation of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor messenger RNAs in the hippocampal formation of the rat. Mol Endocrinol 3:1886 –1894.

 Herman JP, Cullinan WE, Morano MI, Akil H, Watson SJ (1995) Contribution of the ventral subiculum to inhibitory regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. J Neuroendocrinol 7:475–482.

Hill MN, McEwen BS (2010) Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the neurobehavioural effects of stress and glucocorticoids. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 34:791–797.

Hill MN, McLaughlin RJ, Bingham B, Shrestha L, Lee TT, Gray JM, Hillard CJ, Gorzalka BB, Viau V (2010) Endogenous cannabinoid signaling is essential for stress adaptation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:9406 –9411.

 Hill MN, Kumar SA, Filipski SB, Iverson M, Stuhr KL, Keith JM, Cravatt BF, Hillard CJ, Chattarji S, McEwen BS (2013) Disruption of fatty acid amide hydrolase activity prevents the effects of chronic stress on anxiety and amygdalar microstructure. Mol Psychiatry 18:1125–1135.

Hollenberg SM, Weinberger C, Ong ES, Cerelli G, Oro A, Lebo R, Thompson EB, Rosenfeld MG, Evans RM (1985) Primary structure and expression of a functional human glucocorticoid receptor cDNA. Nature 318:635– 641.


 Jacobson L, Akana SF, Cascio CS, Shinsako J, Dallman MF (1988) Circadian variations in plasma corticosterone permit normal termination of adrenocorticotropin responses to stress. Endocrinology 122:1343–1348.

 Joe¨ls M, de Kloet ER (2017) 30 years of the mineralocorticoid receptor: the brain mineralocorticoid receptor: a saga in three episodes. J Endocrinol 234:T49 –T66.

 Kellendonk C, Eiden S, Kretz O, Schu¨ tz G, Schmidt I, Tronche F, Simon E (2002) Inactivation of the GR in the nervous system affects energy accumulation. Endocrinology 143:2333–2340.

hrimian L, Obri A, Ramos-Brossier M, Rousseaud A, Moriceau S, Nicot AS, Mera P, Kosmidis S, Karnavas T, Saudou F, Gao XB, Oury F, Kandel E, Karsenty G (2017) Gpr158 mediates osteocalcin’s regulation of cognition. J Exp Med 214:2859 –2873

. Kinoshita Y, Hunter RG, Gray JD, Mesias R, McEwen BS, Benson DL, Kohtz DS (2014) Role for NUP62 depletion and PYK2 redistribution in dendritic retraction resulting from chronic stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:16130 –16135.

 Klok MD, Alt SR, Irurzun Lafitte AJ, Turner JD, Lakke EA, Huitinga I, Muller CP, Zitman FG, de Kloet ER, Derijk RH (2011) Decreased expression of mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA and its splice variants in postmortem brain regions of patients with major depressive disorder. J Psychiatr Res 45:871–878.

Lau T, Bigio B, Zelli D, McEwen BS, Nasca C (2017) Stress-induced structural of medial amygdala stellate neurons and rapid prevention by a candidate antidepressant. Mol Psychiatry 22:227–234.

Li CH, Simpson ME, Evans HM (1942) Isolation of adrenocorticotropic hormone from sheep pituitaries. Science 96:450.

Li CH, Geschwind II, Cole RD, Raacke ID, Harris JI, Dixon JS (1955) Amino-acid sequence of alpha-corticotropin. Nature 176:687–689.

 Li JZ, Bunney BG, Meng F, Hagenauer MH, Walsh DM, Vawter MP, Evans SJ, Choudary PV, Cartagena P, Barchas JD, Schatzberg AF, Jones EG, Myers RM,Watson SJ Jr, Akil H, BunneyWE (2013) Circadian patterns of gene expression in the human brain and disruption in major depressive disorder. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:9950 –9955.

Lo´ pez JF, Chalmers DT, Little KY, Watson SJ (1998) AE. bennett research award. regulation of serotonin1A, glucocorticoid, and mineralocorticoid receptor in rat and human hippocampus: implications for the neurobiology of depression. Biol Psychiatry 43:547–573.

Mains RE, Eipper BA, Ling N (1977) Common precursor to corticotropins and endorphins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 74:3014 –3018.

 Marsland AL, Gianaros PJ, Abramowitch SM, Manuck SB, Hariri AR (2008) Interleukin-6 covaries inversely with hippocampal grey matter volume in middle-aged adults. Biol Psychiatry 64:484 –490.

atys T, Pawlak R, Matys E, Pavlides C, McEwen BS, Strickland S (2004) Tissue plasminogen activator promotes the effects of corticotropin releasing factor on the amygdala and anxiety-like behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:16345–16350.

McCall T, Weil ZM, Nacher J, Bloss EB, El Maarouf A, Rutishauser U, McEwen BS (2013) Depletion of polysialic acid from neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) increases CA3 dendritic arborization and increases vulnerability to excitotoxicity. Exp Neurol 241:5–12.

 McEwen BS (1998) Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators. N Engl J Med 338:171–179. McEwen BS (2000) Allostasis and allostatic load: implications for neuropsychopharmacology. Neuropsychopharmacology 22:108 –124.

 McEwen BS (2007) Physiology and neurobiology of stress and adaptation: central role of the brain. Physiol Rev 87:873–904. McEwen BS (2019) What is the confusion with cortisol? Chronic Stress (Thousand Oaks) 3:1–3.

McEwen BS, Morrison JH (2013) The brain on stress: vulnerability and plasticity of the prefrontal cortex over the life course. Neuron 79:16 –29. McEwen BS, Weiss JM, Schwartz LS (1968) Selective retention of corticosterone by limbic structures in rat brain. Nature 220:911–912.

 McEwen CA, McEwen BS (2017) Social structure, adversity, toxic stress, and intergenerational poverty: an early childhood model. Annu Rev Sociol 43:445–472.

 Medina A, Seasholtz AF, Sharma V, Burke S, Bunney W Jr, Myers RM, Schatzberg A, Akil H, Watson SJ (2013) Glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor expression in the human hippocampus in major depressive disorder. J Psychiatr Res 47:307–314.

Menard C, Pfau ML, Hodes GE, Kana V, Wang VX, Bouchard S, Takahashi A, Flanigan ME, Aleyasin H, LeClair KB, Janssen WG, Labonte´ B, Parise EM, Lorsch ZS, Golden SA, Heshmati M, Tamminga C, Turecki G, Campbell M, Fayad ZA, et al. (2017) Social stress induces neurovascular pathology promoting depression. Nat Neurosci 20:1752–1760.

iesfeld R, Okret S, Wikstro¨m AC, Wrange O, Gustafsson JA, Yamamoto KR (1984) Characterization of a steroid hormone receptor gene and mRNA in wild-type and mutant cells. Nature 312:779 –781.

Miller GW, Jones DP (2014) The nature of nurture: refining the definition of the exposome. Toxicol Sci 137:1–2.

Moon HY, van Praag H (2014) Muscle over mind. Cell Metab 20:560 –562.

 Mucha M, Skrzypiec AE, Schiavon E, Attwood BK, Kucerova E, Pawlak R (2011) Lipocalin-2 controls neuronal excitability and anxiety by regulating dendritic spine formation and maturation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:18436 –18441.

 Nacher J, Guirado R, Castillo-Go´mez E (2013) Structural plasticity of interneurons in the adult brain: role of PSA-NCAM and implications for psychiatric disorders. Neurochem Res 38:1122–1133.

Nakanishi S, Inoue A, Kita T, Nakamura M, Chang AC, Cohen SN, Numa S (1979) Nucleotide sequence of cloned cDNA for bovine corticotropinbeta-lipotropin precursor. Nature 278:423–427.

Nasca C, Watson-Lin K, Bigio B, Robakis TK, Myoraku A, Wroolie TE, McEwen BS, Rasgon N (2019) Childhood trauma and insulin resistance in patients suffering from depressive disorders. Exp Neurol 315:15–20.

Patel PD, Sherman TG, Goldman DJ, Watson SJ (1989) Molecular cloning of a mineralocorticoid (type I) receptor complementary DNA from rat hippocampus. Mol Endocrinol 3:1877–1885.

 Pawlak R, Magarinos AM, Melchor J, McEwen B, Strickland S (2003) Tissue plasminogen activator in the amygdala is critical for stress-induced anxiety-like behavior. Nat Neurosci 6:168 –174.

Pawlak R, Rao BS, Melchor JP, Chattarji S, McEwen B, Strickland S (2005) Tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen mediate stress-induced decline of neuronal and cognitive functions in the mouse hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:18201–18206.

Perez JA, Clinton SM, Turner CA, Watson SJ, Akil H (2009) A new role for FGF2 as an endogenous inhibitor of anxiety. J Neurosci 29:6379 –6387.

Pitman RK, Gilbertson MW, Gurvits TV, May FS, Lasko NB, Metzger LJ, Shenton ME, Yehuda R, Orr SP (2006) Clarifying the origin of biological abnormalities in PTSD through the study of identical twins discordant for combat exposure. Ann NY Acad Sci 1071:242–254.

 Prater KE, Aurbach EL, Larcinese HK, Smith TN, Turner CA, Blandino P Jr, Watson SJ, Maren S, Akil H (2017) Selectively bred rats provide a unique model of vulnerability to PTSD-like behavior and respond differentially to FGF2 augmentation early in life. Neuropsychopharmacology 42:1706 –1714.

rice JL, Drevets WC (2010) Neurocircuitry of mood disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology 35:192–216. Regev L, Baram TZ (2014) Corticotropin releasing factor in neuroplasticity. Front Neuroendocrinol 35:171–179.

Roberts JL, Herbert E (1977) Characterization of a common precursor to corticotropin and beta-lipotropin: cell-free synthesis of the precursor and identification of corticotropin peptides in the molecule. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 74:4826 –4830.

Rozeboom AM, Akil H, Seasholtz AF (2007) Mineralocorticoid receptor overexpression in forebrain decreases anxiety-like behavior and alters the stress response in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:4688 –4693.

 Rutishauser U (2008) Polysialic acid in the plasticity of the developing and adult vertebrate nervous system. Nat Rev Neurosci 9:26 –35.

 Salmaso N, Stevens HE, McNeill J, ElSayed M, Ren Q, Maragnoli ME, Schwartz ML, Tomasi S, Sapolsky RM, Duman R, Vaccarino FM (2016) Fibroblast growth factor 2 modulates hypothalamic pituitary axis activity and anxiety behavior through glucocorticoid receptors. Biol Psychiatry 80:479 –489.

Sandi C (2004) Stress, cognitive impairment and cell adhesion molecules. Nat Rev Neurosci 5:917–930.

chally, AV, Andersen RN, Lipscomb HS, Long JM, Guillemin R (1960) Evidence for the existence of two corticotrophin-releasing factors, alpha and beta. Nature 188:192–193.

Sheline YI, Liston C, McEwen BS (2019) Parsing the hippocampus in depression: chronic stress, hippocampal volume, and major depressive disorder. Biol Psychiatry 85:436 –438.

 Shonkoff JP, Boyce WT, McEwen BS (2009) Neuroscience, molecular biology, and the childhood roots of health disparities. JAMA 301:2252–2259.

krzypiec AE, Shah RS, Schiavon E, Baker E, Skene N, Pawlak R, Mucha M (2013) Stress-induced lipocalin-2 controls dendritic spine formation and neuronal activity in the amygdala. PLoS One 8:e61046.

Smoller JW, Finn CT (2003) Family, twin, and adoption studies of bipolar disorder. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 123C:48 –58.

Spencer-Segal JL, Akil H (2019) Glucocorticoids and resilience. Horm Behav 111:131–134.

Starkman MN, Gebarski SS, Berent S, Schteingart DE (1992) Hippocampal formation volume, memory dysfunction, and cortisol levels in partiens with Cushing’s syndrome. Biol Psychiatry 32:756 –765.

tarkman MN, Giordani B, Gebarski SS, Berent S, Schork MA, Schteingart DE (1999) Decrease in cortisol reverses human hippocampal atrophy following treatment of Cushing’s disease. Biol Psychiatry 46:1595– 1602.


Trejo JL, Carro E, Torres-Aleman I (2001) Circulating insulin-like growth factor I mediates exercise-induced increases in the number of new neurons in the adult hippocampus. J Neurosci 21:1628 –1634.

Turecki G, Meaney MJ (2016) Effects of the social environment and stress on glucocorticoid receptor gene methylation: a systematic review. Biol Psychiatry 79:87–96. Turner CA, Calvo N, Frost DO, Akil H, Watson SJ (2008a) The fibroblast growth factor system is downregulated following social defeat. Neurosci Lett 430:147–15

Turner CA, Gula EL, Taylor LP, Watson SJ, Akil H (2008b) Antidepressantlike effects of intracerebroventricular FGF2 in rats. Brain Res 1224:63–68.

Turner CA, Clinton SM, Thompson RC, Watson SJ Jr, Akil H (2011) Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) augmentation early in life alters hippocampal development and rescues the anxiety phenotype in vulnerable animals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:8021–8025.

Turner CA, Watson SJ, Akil H (2012) The fibroblast growth factor family: neuromodulation of affective behavior. Neuron 76:160 –174.

Turner CA, Watson SJ, Akil H (2016) Fibroblast growth factor 2 sits at the interface of stress and anxiety. Biol Psychiatry 80:419 –421.

 Vale W, Spiess J, Rivier C, Rivier J (1981) Characterization of a 41-residue ovine hypothalamic peptide that stimulates secretion of corticotropin and beta-endorphin. Science 213:1394 –1397.

van der Kooij MA, Fantin M, Kraev I, Korshunova I, Grosse J, Zanoletti O, Guirado R, Garcia-Mompo´ C, Nacher J, Stewart MG, Berezin V, Sandi C (2014a) Impaired hippocampal neuroligin-2 function by chronic stress or synthetic peptide treatment is linked to social deficits and increased aggression. Neuropsychopharmacology 39:1148 –1158.

van der Kooij MA, Fantin M, Rejmak E, Grosse J, Zanoletti O, Fournier C, Ganguly K, Kalita K, Kaczmarek L, Sandi C (2014b) Role for MMP-9 in stress-induced downregulation of nectin-3 in hippocampal CA1 and associated behavioural alterations. Nat Commun 5:4995. Vythilingam M, Luckenbaugh DA, Lam T, Morgan CA, Lipschitz D, Charney DS, Bremner JD, Southwick SM (2005) Smaller head of the hippocampus in Gulf War-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Res 139:89 –99. Watson K, Nasca C, Aasly L, McEwen B, Rasgon N (2018) Insulin resistance, an unmasked culprit in depressive disorders: promises for interventions. Neuropharmacology 136:327–334.

ebsterMJ, KnableMB, O’Grady J, Orthmann J,Weickert CS (2002) Regional specificity of brain glucocorticoid receptormRNA alterationsin subjectswith schizophrenia and mood disorders. Mol Psychiatry 7:985–994.

Wei Q, Lu XY, Liu L, Schafer G, Shieh KR, Burke S, Robinson TE, Watson SJ, Seasholtz AF, Akil H (2004) Glucocorticoid receptor overexpression in forebrain: a mouse model of increased emotional lability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:11851–11856.

ei Q, Hebda-Bauer EK, Pletsch A, Luo J, Hoversten MT, Osetek AJ, Evans SJ,Watson SJ, Seasholtz AF, Akil H (2007) Overexpressing the glucocorticoid receptor in forebrain causes an aging-like neuroendocrine phenotype and mild cognitive dysfunction. J Neurosci 27:8836 –8844.

 Wei Q, Fentress HM, Hoversten MT, Zhang L, Hebda-Bauer EK, Watson SJ, Seasholtz AF, Akil H (2012) Early-life forebrain glucocorticoid receptor overexpression increases anxiety behavior and cocaine sensitization. Biol Psychiatry 71:224 –231.

Weikum ER, Knuesel MT, Ortlund EA, Yamamoto KR (2017) Glucocorticoid receptor control of transcription: precision and plasticity via allostery. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 18:159 –174.

Whirledge S, DeFranco DB (2018) Glucocorticoid signaling in health and disease: insights from tissue-specific GR knockout mice. Endocrinology 159:46 –64.

Wray NR, Ripke S, Mattheisen M, Trzaskowski M, Byrne EM, Abdellaoui A, Adams MJ, Agerbo E, Air TM, Andlauer TMF, Bacanu SA, BækvadHansen M, Beekman AFT, Bigdeli TB, Binder EB, Blackwood DRH, Bryois J, Buttenschøn HN, Bybjerg-Grauholm J, Cai N, et al. (2018) Genome-wide association analyses identify 44 risk variants and refine the genetic architecture of major depression. Nat Genet 50:668 –681.

Yau PL, Castro MG, Tagani A, Tsui WH, Convit A (2012) Obesity and metabolic syndrome and functional and structural brain impairments in adolescence. Pediatrics 130:e856 – e864.

Yook JS, Rakwal R, Shibato J, Takahashi K, Koizumi H, Shima T, Ikemoto MJ, Oharomari LK, McEwen BS, Soya H (2019) Leptin in hippocampus mediates benefits of mild exercise by an antioxidant on neurogenesis and memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 116:1098



Usted debe ingresar al sitio con su cuenta de usuario IntraMed para ver los comentarios de sus colegas o para expresar su opinión. Si ya tiene una cuenta IntraMed o desea registrase, ingrese aquí

Términos y condiciones de uso | Todos los derechos reservados | Copyright 1997-2020