Una puesta al día en profundidad | 27 JUN 16

Fisiopatología y tratamiento de la sepsis

Revisión y puesta al día sobre un problema que, a pesar de las mejoras en el pronóstico, continúa siendo grave y muchas veces letal
Autor/a: Gotts JE, Matthay MA Fuente: BMJ 2016; 353: i1585 Sepsis: pathophysiology and clinical management
INDICE:  1. Página 1 | 2. Referencias
Referencias

    ↵Bone RC, Sprung CL, Sibbald WJ. Definitions for sepsis and organ failure. Crit Care Med1992;20:724-6. doi:10.1097/00003246-199206000-00002 pmid:1597021.

    MedlineWeb of Science

    ↵American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus Conference: definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. Crit Care Med1992;20:864-74. doi:10.1097/00003246-199206000-00025 pmid:1597042.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Singer M, Deutschman CS, Seymour CW, et al. The third international consensus definitions for sepsis and septic shock (sepsis-3). JAMA2016;315:801-10. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.0287. pmid:26903338.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Levy MM, Fink MP, Marshall JC, et al. SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS. 2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International Sepsis Definitions Conference. Crit Care Med2003;31:1250-6. doi:10.1097/01.CCM.0000050454.01978.3B. pmid:12682500.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Churpek MM, Zadravecz FJ, Winslow C, Howell MD, Edelson DP. Incidence and prognostic value of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and organ dysfunctions in ward patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med2015;192:958-64. doi:10.1164/rccm.201502-0275OC. pmid:26158402.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Vincent J-L, Opal SM, Marshall JC, Tracey KJ. Sepsis definitions: time for change. Lancet2013;381:774-5. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61815-7. pmid:23472921.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Ulloa L, Tracey KJ. The “cytokine profile”: a code for sepsis. Trends Mol Med2005;11:56-63. doi:10.1016/j.molmed.2004.12.007. pmid:15694867.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Angus DC, Linde-Zwirble WT, Lidicker J, Clermont G, Carcillo J, Pinsky MR. Epidemiology of severe sepsis in the United States: analysis of incidence, outcome, and associated costs of care. Crit Care Med2001;29:1303-10. doi:10.1097/00003246-200107000-00002 pmid:11445675.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Martin GS, Mannino DM, Eaton S, Moss M. The epidemiology of sepsis in the United States from 1979 through 2000. N Engl J Med2003;348:1546-54. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa022139. pmid:12700374.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Brun-Buisson C, Meshaka P, Pinton P, Vallet B. EPISEPSIS Study Group. EPISEPSIS: a reappraisal of the epidemiology and outcome of severe sepsis in French intensive care units. Intensive Care Med2004;30:580-8. doi:10.1007/s00134-003-2136-x. pmid:14997295.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵van Gestel A, Bakker J, Veraart CP, van Hout BA. Prevalence and incidence of severe sepsis in Dutch intensive care units. Crit Care2004;8:R153-62. doi:10.1186/cc2858. pmid:15312213.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Harrison DA, Welch CA, Eddleston JM. The epidemiology of severe sepsis in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, 1996 to 2004: secondary analysis of a high quality clinical database, the ICNARC Case Mix Programme Database. Crit Care2006;10:R42. doi:10.1186/cc4854. pmid:16542492.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Kaukonen K-M, Bailey M, Suzuki S, Pilcher D, Bellomo R. Mortality related to severe sepsis and septic shock among critically ill patients in Australia and New Zealand, 2000-2012. JAMA2014;311:1308-16. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.2637. pmid:24638143.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Sakr Y, Elia C, Mascia L, et al. The influence of gender on the epidemiology of and outcome from severe sepsis. Crit Care2013;17:R50. doi:10.1186/cc12570. pmid:23506971.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Wichmann MW, Inthorn D, Andress H-J, Schildberg FW. Incidence and mortality of severe sepsis in surgical intensive care patients: the influence of patient gender on disease process and outcome. Intensive Care Med2000;26:167-72. doi:10.1007/s001340050041. pmid:10784304.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Adrie C, Azoulay E, Francais A, et al. OutcomeRea Study Group. Influence of gender on the outcome of severe sepsis: a reappraisal. Chest2007;132:1786-93. doi:10.1378/chest.07-0420. pmid:17890473.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Angele MK, Pratschke S, Hubbard WJ, Chaudry IH. Gender differences in sepsis: cardiovascular and immunological aspects. Virulence2014;5:12-9. doi:10.4161/viru.26982. pmid:24193307.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Barnato AE, Alexander SL, Linde-Zwirble WT, Angus DC. Racial variation in the incidence, care, and outcomes of severe sepsis: analysis of population, patient, and hospital characteristics. Am J Respir Crit Care Med2008;177:279-84. doi:10.1164/rccm.200703-480OC. pmid:17975201.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Dombrovskiy VY, Martin AA, Sunderram J, Paz HL. Occurrence and outcomes of sepsis: influence of race. Crit Care Med2007;35:763-8. doi:10.1097/01.CCM.0000256726.80998.BF. pmid:17255870.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Mayr FB, Yende S, Linde-Zwirble WT, et al. Infection rate and acute organ dysfunction risk as explanations for racial differences in severe sepsis. JAMA2010;303:2495-503. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.851. pmid:20571016.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Ferwerda B, Alonso S, Banahan K, et al. Functional and genetic evidence that the Mal/TIRAP allele variant 180L has been selected by providing protection against septic shock. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A2009;106:10272-7. doi:10.1073/pnas.0811273106. pmid:19509334.

    Abstract/FREE Full Text

    ↵Ferwerda B, McCall MBB, Alonso S, et al. TLR4 polymorphisms, infectious diseases, and evolutionary pressure during migration of modern humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A2007;104:16645-50. doi:10.1073/pnas.0704828104. pmid:17925445.

    Abstract/FREE Full Text

    ↵Martin GSM, Mannino DM, Moss M. The effect of age on the development and outcome of adult sepsis. Crit Care Med2006;34:15-21. doi:10.1097/01.CCM.0000194535.82812.BA. pmid:16374151.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Lemay ACB, Anzueto A, Restrepo MIM, Mortensen EM. Predictors of long-term mortality after severe sepsis in the elderly. Am J Med Sci2014;347:282-8. doi:10.1097/MAJ.0b013e318295a147. pmid:23689053.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Brun-Buisson C, Doyon F, Carlet J, et al. French ICU Group for Severe Sepsis. Incidence, risk factors, and outcome of severe sepsis and septic shock in adults. A multicenter prospective study in intensive care units. JAMA1995;274:968-74. doi:10.1001/jama.1995.03530120060042. pmid:7674528.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Annane D, Aegerter P, Jars-Guincestre MC, Guidet B. CUB-Réa Network. Current epidemiology of septic shock: the CUB-Réa Network. Am J Respir Crit Care Med2003;168:165-72. doi:10.1164/rccm.2201087. pmid:12851245.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Beale R, Reinhart K, Brunkhorst FM, et al. PROGRESS Advisory Board. Promoting Global Research Excellence in Severe Sepsis (PROGRESS): lessons from an international sepsis registry. Infection2009;37:222-32. doi:10.1007/s15010-008-8203-z. pmid:19404580.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Tolsma V, Schwebel C, Azoulay E, et al. Sepsis severe or septic shock: outcome according to immune status and immunodeficiency profile. Chest2014;146:1205-13. doi:10.1378/chest.13-2618. pmid:25033349.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Williams MD, Braun LA, Cooper LM, et al. Hospitalized cancer patients with severe sepsis: analysis of incidence, mortality, and associated costs of care. Crit Care2004;8:R291-8. doi:10.1186/cc2893. pmid:15469571.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Rosolem MM, Rabello LSCF, Lisboa T, et al. Critically ill patients with cancer and sepsis: clinical course and prognostic factors. J Crit Care2012;27:301-7. doi:10.1016/j.jcrc.2011.06.014. pmid:21855281.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Zuber B, Tran T-C, Aegerter P, et al. CUB-Réa Network. Impact of case volume on survival of septic shock in patients with malignancies. Crit Care Med2012;40:55-62. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31822d74ba. pmid:21926606.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Sørensen TIA, Nielsen GG, Andersen PK, Teasdale TW. Genetic and environmental influences on premature death in adult adoptees. N Engl J Med1988;318:727-32. doi:10.1056/NEJM198803243181202. pmid:3347221.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Netea MG, van der Meer JWM. Immunodeficiency and genetic defects of pattern-recognition receptors. N Engl J Med2011;364:60-70. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1001976. pmid:21208109.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Meyer NJM. Finding a needle in the haystack: leveraging bioinformatics to identify a functional genetic risk factor for sepsis death. Crit Care Med2015;43:242-3. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000000664. pmid:25514715.

    Medline

    ↵Tang BM, Huang SJ, McLean AS. Genome-wide transcription profiling of human sepsis: a systematic review. Crit Care2010;14:R237. doi:10.1186/cc9392. pmid:21190579.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Clark MF, Baudouin SV. A systematic review of the quality of genetic association studies in human sepsis. Intensive Care Med2006;32:1706-12. doi:10.1007/s00134-006-0327-y. pmid:16957907.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Agnese DM, Calvano JE, Hahm SJ, et al. Human toll-like receptor 4 mutations but not CD14 polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of gram-negative infections. J Infect Dis2002;186:1522-5. doi:10.1086/344893. pmid:12404174.

    Abstract/FREE Full Text

    ↵Lorenz E, Mira JP, Frees KL, Schwartz DA. Relevance of mutations in the TLR4 receptor in patients with gram-negative septic shock. Arch Intern Med2002;162:1028-32. doi:10.1001/archinte.162.9.1028. pmid:11996613.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Van der Graaf CA, Netea MG, Morré SA, et al. Toll-like receptor 4 Asp299Gly/Thr399Ile polymorphisms are a risk factor for Candida bloodstream infection. Eur Cytokine Netw2006;17:29-34.pmid:16613760.

    MedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Plantinga TS, Johnson MD, Scott WK, et al. Toll-like receptor 1 polymorphisms increase susceptibility to candidemia. J Infect Dis2012;205:934-43. doi:10.1093/infdis/jir867. pmid:22301633.

    Abstract/FREE Full Text

    ↵Bochud P-Y, Chien JW, Marr KA, et al. Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms and aspergillosis in stem-cell transplantation. N Engl J Med2008;359:1766-77. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0802629. pmid:18946062.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Henckaerts L, Nielsen KR, Steffensen R, et al. Polymorphisms in innate immunity genes predispose to bacteremia and death in the medical intensive care unit. Crit Care Med2009;37:192-201, e1-3. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31819263d8. pmid:19050632.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Nakada TA, Russell JAM, Boyd JHM, Thair SA, Walley KR. Identification of a nonsynonymous polymorphism in the SVEP1 gene associated with altered clinical outcomes in septic shock. Crit Care Med2015;43:101-8. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000000604. pmid:25188548.

    Medline

    ↵Rautanen A, Mills TC, Gordon AC, et al. ESICM/ECCRN GenOSept Investigators. Genome-wide association study of survival from sepsis due to pneumonia: an observational cohort study. Lancet Respir Med2015;3:53-60. doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(14)70290-5. pmid:25533491.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵O’Brien JMJM Jr, , Lu B, Ali NA, et al. Alcohol dependence is independently associated with sepsis, septic shock, and hospital mortality among adult intensive care unit patients. Crit Care Med2007;35:345-50. doi:10.1097/01.CCM.0000254340.91644.B2. pmid:17205003.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Henriksen DP, Pottegård A, Laursen CB, et al. Risk factors for hospitalization due to community-acquired sepsis—a population-based case-control study. PLoS One2015;10:e0124838. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0124838. pmid:25898024.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Calfee CSM, Matthay MA, Kangelaris KNM, et al. Cigarette smoke exposure and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med2015;43:1790-7. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000001089. pmid:26010690.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Calfee CS, Matthay MA, Eisner MD, et al. Active and passive cigarette smoking and acute lung injury after severe blunt trauma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med2011;183:1660-5. doi:10.1164/rccm.201011-1802OC. pmid:21471091.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Wang HE, Shapiro NI, Griffin R, Safford MM, Judd S, Howard G. Chronic medical conditions and risk of sepsis. PLoS One2012;7:e48307. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048307. pmid:23118977.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Arcavi L, Benowitz NL. Cigarette smoking and infection. Arch Intern Med2004;164:2206-16. doi:10.1001/archinte.164.20.2206. pmid:15534156.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Garcia-Vidal C, Ardanuy C, Tubau F, et al. Pneumococcal pneumonia presenting with septic shock: host- and pathogen-related factors and outcomes. Thorax2010;65:77-81. doi:10.1136/thx.2009.123612. pmid:19996337.

    Abstract/FREE Full Text

    ↵Bello S, Menéndez R, Torres A, et al. Tobacco smoking increases the risk for death from pneumococcal pneumonia. Chest2014;146:1029-37. doi:10.1378/chest.13-2853. pmid:24811098.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Turan A, Mascha EJ, Roberman D, et al. Smoking and perioperative outcomes. Anesthesiology2011;114:837-46. doi:10.1097/ALN.0b013e318210f560. pmid:21372682.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Blair LJ, Huntington CR, Cox TC, et al Risk factors for postoperative sepsis in laparoscopic gastric bypass. Surg Endosc2015; published online 1 July. doi:10.1007/s00464-015-4349-9.

    ↵de Haan K, Groeneveld AB, de Geus HR, Egal M, Struijs A. Vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for infection, sepsis and mortality in the critically ill: systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care2014;18:660. doi:10.1186/s13054-014-0660-4. pmid:25475621.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Bjelakovic G, Gluud LL, Nikolova D, et al. Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of mortality in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2014;1:CD007470. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007470.pub3. pmid:24414552.

    Medline

    ↵Georges S, Lepoutre A, Dabernat H, Levy-Bruhl D. Impact of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination on the incidence of invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in France, 15 years after its introduction. Epidemiol Infect2013;141:1787-96. doi:10.1017/S0950268813000083. pmid:23425638.

    CrossRefWeb of Science

    ↵Vincent J-L, Rello J, Marshall J, et al. EPIC II Group of Investigators. International study of the prevalence and outcomes of infection in intensive care units. JAMA2009;302:2323-9. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.1754. pmid:19952319.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Obaro SK, Monteil MA, Henderson DC. The pneumococcal problem. BMJ1996;312:1521-5. doi:10.1136/bmj.312.7045.1521 pmid:8646147.

    Abstract/FREE Full Text

    ↵Kett DH, Azoulay E, Echeverria PM, Vincent JL. Extended Prevalence of Infection in ICU Study (EPIC II) Group of Investigators. Candida bloodstream infections in intensive care units: analysis of the extended prevalence of infection in intensive care unit study. Crit Care Med2011;39:665-70. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e318206c1ca. pmid:21169817.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Hanberger H, Walther S, Leone M, et al. EPIC II Group of Investigators. Increased mortality associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in the intensive care unit: results from the EPIC II study. Int J Antimicrob Agents2011;38:331-5. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2011.05.013. pmid:21798720.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Hanberger H, Antonelli M, Holmbom M, et al. EPIC II Group of Investigators. Infections, antibiotic treatment and mortality in patients admitted to ICUs in countries considered to have high levels of antibiotic resistance compared to those with low levels. BMC Infect Dis2014;14:513. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-513. pmid:25245620.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵De Waele J, Lipman J, Sakr Y, et al. EPIC II Investigators. Abdominal infections in the intensive care unit: characteristics, treatment and determinants of outcome. BMC Infect Dis2014;14:420. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-420. pmid:25074742.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Gustot T, Felleiter P, Pickkers P, et al. EPIC II Group of Investigators. Impact of infection on the prognosis of critically ill cirrhotic patients: results from a large worldwide study. Liver Int2014;34:1496-503. doi:10.1111/liv.12520. pmid:24606193.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Weiss SL, Fitzgerald JC, Pappachan J, et al. Sepsis Prevalence, Outcomes, and Therapies (SPROUT) Study Investigators and Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigators (PALISI) Network. Global epidemiology of pediatric severe sepsis: the sepsis prevalence, outcomes, and therapies study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med2015;191:1147-57. doi:10.1164/rccm.201412-2323OC. pmid:25734408.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Hartman ME, Linde-Zwirble WT, Angus DC, Watson RS. Trends in the epidemiology of pediatric severe sepsis. Pediatr Crit Care Med2013;14:686-93. doi:10.1097/PCC.0b013e3182917fad. pmid:23897242.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Rabuel C, Mebazaa A. Septic shock: a heart story since the 1960s. Intensive Care Med2006;32:799-807. doi:10.1007/s00134-006-0142-5. pmid:16570145.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Kimchi A, Ellrodt AG, Berman DS, Riedinger MS, Swan HJ, Murata GH. Right ventricular performance in septic shock: a combined radionuclide and hemodynamic study. J Am Coll Cardiol1984;4:945-51. doi:10.1016/S0735-1097(84)80055-8 pmid:6491086.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Parker MM, Shelhamer JH, Bacharach SL, et al. Profound but reversible myocardial depression in patients with septic shock. Ann Intern Med1984;100:483-90. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-100-4-483 pmid:6703540.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Shapiro NI, Howell MD, Talmor D, et al. Serum lactate as a predictor of mortality in emergency department patients with infection. Ann Emerg Med2005;45:524-8. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2004.12.006. pmid:15855951.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Kraut JA, Madias NE. Lactic acidosis. N Engl J Med2014;371:2309-19. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1309483. pmid:25494270.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Hayes MA, Timmins AC, Yau EH, Palazzo M, Hinds CJ, Watson D. Elevation of systemic oxygen delivery in the treatment of critically ill patients. N Engl J Med1994;330:1717-22. doi:10.1056/NEJM199406163302404. pmid:7993413.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Rivers E, Nguyen B, Havstad S, et al. Early Goal-Directed Therapy Collaborative Group. Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. N Engl J Med2001;345:1368-77. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa010307. pmid:11794169.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Garcia-Alvarez M, Marik P, Bellomo R. Sepsis-associated hyperlactatemia. Crit Care2014;18:503. doi:10.1186/s13054-014-0503-3. pmid:25394679.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Ronco JJ, Fenwick JC, Tweeddale MG, et al. Identification of the critical oxygen delivery for anaerobic metabolism in critically ill septic and nonseptic humans. JAMA1993;270:1724-30. doi:10.1001/jama.1993.03510140084034 pmid:8411504.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Wolinsky H. A proposal linking clearance of circulating lipoproteins to tissue metabolic activity as a basis for understanding atherogenesis. Circ Res1980;47:301-11. doi:10.1161/01.RES.47.3.301 pmid:6996862.

    FREE Full Text

    ↵Aird WC. The role of the endothelium in severe sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Blood2003;101:3765-77. doi:10.1182/blood-2002-06-1887. pmid:12543869.

    Abstract/FREE Full Text

    ↵Koh IHJ, Menchaca-Diaz JL, Koh TH, et al. Microcirculatory evaluation in sepsis: a difficult task. Shock2010;34(Suppl 1):27-33. doi:10.1097/SHK.0b013e3181e7e80c. pmid:20523273.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵De Backer D, Ortiz JA, Salgado D. Coupling microcirculation to systemic hemodynamics. Curr Opin Crit Care2010;16:250-4. doi:10.1097/MCC.0b013e3283383621. pmid:20179590.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Levi M. Pathogenesis and treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation in the septic patient. J Crit Care2001;16:167-77. doi:10.1053/jcrc.2001.30666. pmid:11815902.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Matthay MA, Ware LB, Zimmerman GA. The acute respiratory distress syndrome. J Clin Invest2012;122:2731-40. doi:10.1172/JCI60331. pmid:22850883.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Deutschman CS, Tracey KJ. Sepsis: current dogma and new perspectives. Immunity2014;40:463-75. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2014.04.001. pmid:24745331.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Fink MP. Intestinal epithelial hyperpermeability: update on the pathogenesis of gut mucosal barrier dysfunction in critical illness. Curr Opin Crit Care2003;9:143-51. doi:10.1097/00075198-200304000-00011 pmid:12657978.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Schmid-Schönbein GW, Chang M. The autodigestion hypothesis for shock and multi-organ failure. Ann Biomed2014;42:405-14. doi:10.1007/s10439-013-0891-6. pmid:23989761.

    CrossRef

    ↵Hassoun HT, Kone BC, Mercer DW, Moody FG, Weisbrodt NW, Moore FA. Post-injury multiple organ failure: the role of the gut. Shock2001;15:1-10. doi:10.1097/00024382-200115010-00001 pmid:11198350.

    MedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Doig CJ, Sutherland LR, Sandham JD, Fick GH, Verhoef M, Meddings JB. Increased intestinal permeability is associated with the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in critically ill ICU patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med1998;158:444-51. doi:10.1164/ajrccm.158.2.9710092. pmid:9700119.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Walley KR, Francis GA, Opal SM, et al. The central role of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 in septic pathogen lipid transport and clearance. Am J Respir Crit Care Med2015;192:1275-86. doi:10.1164/rccm.201505-0876CI. pmid:26252194.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Alobaidi R, Basu RK, Goldstein SL, Bagshaw SM. Sepsis-associated acute kidney injury. Semin Nephrol2015;35:2-11. doi:10.1016/j.semnephrol.2015.01.002. pmid:25795495.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Wan L, Bagshaw SM, Langenberg C, Saotome T, May C, Bellomo R. Pathophysiology of septic acute kidney injury: what do we really know?Crit Care Med2008;36(Suppl):S198-203. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e318168ccd5. pmid:18382194.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Ishikawa K, May CN, Gobe G, Langenberg C, Bellomo R. Pathophysiology of septic acute kidney injury: a different view of tubular injury. Contrib Nephrol2010;165:18-27. doi:10.1159/000313740. pmid:20427951.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Takasu O, Gaut JP, Watanabe E, et al. Mechanisms of cardiac and renal dysfunction in patients dying of sepsis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med2013;187:509-17. doi:10.1164/rccm.201211-1983OC. pmid:23348975.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Prowle JR, Bellomo R. Sepsis-associated acute kidney injury: macrohemodynamic and microhemodynamic alterations in the renal circulation. Semin Nephrol2015;35:64-74. doi:10.1016/j.semnephrol.2015.01.007. pmid:25795500.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Tracey KJ. Reflex control of immunity. Nat Rev Immunol2009;9:418-28. doi:10.1038/nri2566. pmid:19461672.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Borovikova LV, Ivanova S, Zhang M, et al. Vagus nerve stimulation attenuates the systemic inflammatory response to endotoxin. Nature2000;405:458-62. doi:10.1038/35013070. pmid:10839541.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Ortiz-Pomales YT, Krzyzaniak M, Coimbra R, Baird A, Eliceiri BP. Vagus nerve stimulation blocks vascular permeability following burn in both local and distal sites. Burns2013;39:68-75. doi:10.1016/j.burns.2012.04.004. pmid:22694873.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Van Westerloo DJ, Giebelen IA, Florquin S, et al. The vagus nerve and nicotinic receptors modulate experimental pancreatitis severity in mice. Gastroenterology2006;130:1822-30. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2006.02.022. pmid:16697744.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Bernik TR, Friedman SG, Ochani M, et al. Cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway inhibition of tumor necrosis factor during ischemia reperfusion. J Vasc Surg2002;36:1231-6. doi:10.1067/mva.2002.129643. pmid:12469056.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Ziaja M. Septic encephalopathy. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep2013;13:383. doi:10.1007/s11910-013-0383-y. pmid:23954971.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Ely EW, Shintani A, Truman B, et al. Delirium as a predictor of mortality in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit. JAMA2004;291:1753-62. doi:10.1001/jama.291.14.1753. pmid:15082703.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Pandharipande PP, Girard TD, Jackson JC, et al. BRAIN-ICU Study Investigators. Long-term cognitive impairment after critical illness. N Engl J Med2013;369:1306-16. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1301372. pmid:24088092.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Iacobone E, Bailly-Salin J, Polito A, Friedman D, Stevens RD, Sharshar T. Sepsis-associated encephalopathy and its differential diagnosis. Crit Care Med2009;37(Suppl):S331-6. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181b6ed58. pmid:20046118.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Sharshar T, Carlier R, Bernard F, et al. Brain lesions in septic shock: a magnetic resonance imaging study. Intensive Care Med2007;33:798-806. doi:10.1007/s00134-007-0598-y. pmid:17377766.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Schramm P, Klein KU, Falkenberg L, et al. Impaired cerebrovascular autoregulation in patients with severe sepsis and sepsis-associated delirium. Crit Care2012;16:R181. doi:10.1186/cc11665. pmid:23036135.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Sharshar T, Annane D, de la Grandmaison GL, Brouland JP, Hopkinson NS, Françoise G. The neuropathology of septic shock. Brain Pathol2004;14:21-33. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3639.2004.tb00494.x pmid:14997934.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Boomer JS, To K, Chang KC, et al. Immunosuppression in patients who die of sepsis and multiple organ failure. JAMA2011;306:2594-605. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.1829. pmid:22187279.

    CrossRefMedlineWeb of Science

    ↵Hotchkiss RS, Tinsley KW, Swanson PE, et al. Sepsis-induced apoptosis causes progressive profound depletion of B and CD4+ T lymphocytes in humans. J Immunol2001;166:6952-63. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.166.11.6952 pmid:11359857.

    Abstract/FREE Full Text

    ↵Cabrera-Perez J, Condotta SA, Badovinac VP, Griffith TS. Impact of sepsis on CD4 T cell immunity. J Leukoc Biol2014;96:767-77. doi:10.1189/jlb.5MR0114-067R. pmid:24791959.

    Abstract/FREE Full Text

    ↵Walton AH, Muenzer JT, Rasche D, et al. Reactivation of multiple viruses in patients with sepsis. PLoS One2014;9:e98819. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098819. pmid:24919177.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Drewry AM, Samra N, Skrupky LP, Fuller BM, Compton SM, Hotchkiss RS. Persistent lymphopenia after diagnosis of sepsis predicts mortality. Shock2014;42:383-91. doi:10.1097/SHK.0000000000000234. pmid:25051284.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Otto GP, Sossdorf M, Claus RA, et al. The late phase of sepsis is characterized by an increased microbiological burden and death rate. Crit Care2011;15:R183. doi:10.1186/cc10332. pmid:21798063.

    CrossRefMedline

    ↵Slutsky AS, Ranieri VM. Ventilator-induced lung injury. N Engl J Med2013;369:2126-36. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1208707. pmid:24283226.

 

Comentarios

Para ver los comentarios de sus colegas o para expresar su opinión debe ingresar con su cuenta de IntraMed.

AAIP RNBD
Términos y condiciones de uso | Todos los derechos reservados | Copyright 1997-2022