Uso responsable y prevención de riesgos | 16 ENE 17

Uso de esteroides anabólicos

Los esteroides anabólicos son derivados sintéticos de la testosterona y usualmente se toman sin consejo médico con el fin de aumentar la masa muscular o mejorar el rendimiento atlético
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Autor: John H M Brooks, Imtiaz Ahmad, Graham Easton.   BMJ 2016;355:i5023
INDICE:  1. Página 1 | 2. Referencias bibliográficas
Referencias bibliográficas

Referencias

1 Pope HG Jr, , Kanayama G, Athey A, Ryan E, Hudson JI, Baggish A. The lifetime prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid use and dependence in Americans: current best estimates. Am J Addict 2014;23:371-7. doi:10.1111/j.1521-0391.2013.12118.x pmid: 24112239.

2 Kanayama G, Brower KJ, Wood RI, Hudson JI, Pope HG Jr. Anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence: an emerging disorder. Addiction 2009;104:1966-78. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02734.x pmid:19922565.

3 Lundholm L, Frisell T, Lichtenstein P, Långström N. Anabolic androgenic steroids and violent offending: confounding by polysubstance abuse among 10,365 general population men. Addiction 2015;110:100-8.doi:10.1111/add.12715 pmid:25170826.

4 Bhasin S, Storer TW, Berman N, et al. The effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on muscle size and strength in normal men. N Engl J Med 1996;335:1-7. doi:10.1056/NEJM199607043350101 pmid:8637535.

5 Sagoe D, Molde H, Andreassen CS, Torsheim T, Pallesen S. The global epidemiology of anabolic-androgenic steroid use: a meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis. Ann Epidemiol 2014;24:383-98. doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2014.01.009 pmid:24582699.

6 World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). List of prohibited substances and methods. Secondary list of prohibited substances and methods 2016. http://list.wada-ama.org/.

7 Abbate V, Kicman AT, Evans-Brown M, et al. Anabolic steroids detected in bodybuilding dietary supplements - a significant risk to public health. Drug Test Anal 2015;7:609-18. doi:10.1002/dta.1728 pmid:25284752.

8 Nieschlag E, Vorona E. Doping with anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS): Adverse effects on non-reproductive organs and functions. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2015;16:199-211. doi:10.1007/s11154-015-9320-5 pmid:26373946.

9 Moretti E, Collodel G, La Marca A, Piomboni P, Scapigliati G, Baccetti B. Structural sperm and aneuploidies studies in a case of spermatogenesis recovery after the use of androgenic anabolic steroids. J Assist Reprod Genet 2007;24:195-8. doi:10.1007/s10815-005-9002-4 pmid:17342427.

10 Knuth UA, Maniera H, Nieschlag E. Anabolic steroids and semen parameters in bodybuilders. Fertil Steril 1989;52:1041-7. doi:10.1016/S0015-0282(16)53172-0 pmid: 2512180.

11 El Osta R, Almont T, Diligent C, Hubert N, Eschwège P, Hubert J. Anabolic steroids abuse and male infertility. Basic Clin Androl 2016;26:2.pmid:26855782.

12 Dickerman RD, Pertusi RM, Zachariah NY, Dufour DR, McConathy WJ. Anabolic steroid-induced hepatotoxicity: is it overstated?Clin J Sport Med 1999;9:34-9. doi:10.1097/00042752-199901000-00007 pmid:10336050.

13 United States National Library of Medicine. LiverTox. Drug record anabolic steroids. Secondary LiverTox. Drug record anabolic steroids 2016. http://livertox.nih.gov/AndrogenicSteroids.htm.

14 Thiblin I, Garmo H, Garle M, et al. Anabolic steroids and cardiovascular risk: A national population-based cohort study. Drug Alcohol Depend 2015;152:87-92. doi:10.1016/j. drugalcdep.2015.04.013 pmid:26005042.

15 Dunn M. Commentary on Lundholm et al. (2015): What came first, the steroids or the violence?Addiction 2015;110:109-10. doi:10.1111/add.12752 pmid:25515831.

16 Kanayama G, DeLuca J, Meehan WP 3rd, et al. Ruptured tendons in anabolic-androgenic steroid users: a cross-sectional cohort study. Am J Sports Med 2015;43:2638-44. doi:10. 1177/0363546515602010 pmid:26362436.

17 Craft LL, Perna FM. The benefits of exercise for the clinically depressed. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry 2004;6:104-11. doi:10.4088/PCC.v06n0301 pmid:15361924.

18 Kim HJ, Kim CK, Carpentier A, Poortmans JR. Studies on the safety of creatine supplementation. Amino Acids 2011;40:1409-18. doi:10.1007/s00726-011-0878-2 pmid: 21399917.

19 Molfino A, Gioia G, Rossi Fanelli F, Muscaritoli M. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation in health and disease: a systematic review of randomized trials. Amino Acids 2013;45:1273-92. doi:10.1007/s00726-013-1592-z pmid:24057808.

 

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