1. Esc orsell A, Mas A, de la Mata M. Acute liver failure in Spain: analysis of 267 cases. Liver Transpl 2007; 13:1389-95.
2. Bower WA, Johns M, Margolis HS, Williams IT, Bell BP. Population-based surveillance for acute liver failure. Am J Gastroenterol 2007; 102:2459-63. [Erratum, Am J Gastroenterol 2008; 103:255.]
3. Kumar R, Shalimar, Bhatia V, et al. Antituberculosis therapy-induced acute liver failure: magnitude, profile, prognosis, and predictors of outcome. Hepatology 2010;51:1665-74.
4. Lee WM, Stravitz RT, Larson AM. Introduction to the revised American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases Position Paper on acute liver failure 2011. Hepatology 2012;55:965-7.
5. Bernal W, Hyyrylainen A, Gera A, et al. Lessons from look-back in acute liver failure? A single centre experience of 3300 patients. J Hepatol 2013;59:74-80.
6. Trey C, Davidson CS. The management of fulminant hepatic failure. Prog Liver Dis 1970;3:282-98.
7. Wlodzimirow KA, Eslami S, AbuHanna A, Nieuwoudt M, Chamuleau RA. Systematic review: acute liver failure — one disease, more than 40 definitions. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2012; 35:1245-56.
8. O’Grady JG, Schalm SW, Williams R. Acute liver failure: redefining the syndromes. Lancet 1993; 342:273-5. [Erratum, Lancet 1993;342:1000.]
9. Bernuau J, Rueff B, Benhamou JP. Fulminant and subfulminant liver failure: definitions and causes. Semin Liver Dis 1986; 6:97-106.
10. Mochida S, Nakayama N, Matsui A, Nagoshi S, Fujiwara K. Re-evaluation of the Guideline published by the Acute Liver Failure Study Group of Japan in 1996 to determine the indications of liver transplantation in patients with fulminant hepatitis. Hepatol Res 2008; 38:970-9.
11. Hoofnagle JH, Nelson KE, Purcell RH. Hepatitis E. N Engl J Med 2012; 367:1237-44.
12. Wasley A, Fiore A, Bell BP. Hepatitis A in the era of vaccination. Epidemiol Rev 2006; 28:101-11.
13. Khuroo MS, Kamili S. Aetiology and prognostic factors in acute liver failure in India. J Viral Hepat 2003; 10:224-31.
14. Torres HA, Davila M. Reactivation of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus in patients with cancer. Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2012; 9:156-66.
15. Ichai P, Samuel D. Etiology and prognosis of fulminant hepatitis in adults. Liver Transpl 2008; 14:Suppl 2:S67-S79.
16. Ostapowicz G, Fontana RJ, Schiodt FV, et al. Results of a prospective study of acute liver failure at 17 tertiary care centers in the United States. Ann Intern Med 2002; 137:947-54.
17. Reuben A, Koch DG, Lee WM. Drug induced acute liver failure: results of a U.S. multicenter, prospective study. Hepatology 2010; 52:2065-76.
18. Craig DGN, Bates CM, Davidson JS, Martin KG, Hayes PC, Simpson KJ. Staggered overdose pattern and delay to hospital presentation are associated With adverse outcomes following paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2012; 73:285-94.
19. Myers RP, Shaheen AAM, Li B, Dean S, Quan H. Impact of liver disease, alcohol abuse, and unintentional ingestions on the outcomes of acetaminophen overdose. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008; 6:918-25.
20. Rezende G, Roque-Afonso AM, Samuel D, et al. Viral and clinical factors associated with the fulminant course of hepatitis A infection. Hepatology 2003; 38:613-8.
21. Khandelwal N, James LP, Sanders C, Larson AM, Lee WM. Unrecognized acetaminophen toxicity as a cause of indeterminate acute liver failure. Hepatology 2011; 53:567-76.
22. Chalasani N, Fontana RJ, Bonkovsky HL, et al. Causes, clinical features, and outcomes from a prospective study of drug-induced liver injury in the United States. Gastroenterology 2008; 135:1924-34.
23. Björnsson E, Olsson R. Outcome and prognostic markers in severe drug-induced liver disease. Hepatology 2005; 42:481-9.
24. Lescot T, Karvellas C, Beaussier M, Magder S. Acquired liver injury in the intensive care unit. Anesthesiology 2012; 117: 898-904.
25. Henrion J. Hypoxic hepatitis. Liver Int 2012; 32:1039-52.
26. Heard KJ. Acetylcysteine for acetaminophen poisoning. N Engl J Med 2008; 359:285-92.
27. Lee WM, Hynan LS, Rossaro L, et al. Intravenous N-acetylcysteine improves transplant-free survival in early stage non-acetaminophen acute liver failure. Gastroenterology 2009; 137:856-64.
28. Vaquero J, Polson J, Chung C, et al. Infection and the progression of hepatic encephalopathy in acute liver failure. Gastroenterology 2003; 125:755-64.
29. Karvellas CJ, Pink F, McPhail M, et al. Predictors of bacteraemia and mortality in patients with acute liver failure. Intensive Care Med 2009; 35:1390-6.
30. Berry PA, Antoniades CG, Hussain MJ, et al. Admission levels and early changes in serum interleukin- 10 are predictive of poor outcome in acute liver failure and decompensated cirrhosis. Liver Int 2010; 30:733-40.
31. Agarwal B, Wright G, Gatt A, et al. Evaluation of coagulation abnormalities in acute liver failure. J Hepatol 2012; 57: 780-6.
32. Stravitz RT, Lisman T, Luketic VA, et al. Minimal effects of acute liver injury/acute liver failure on hemostasis as assessed by thromboelastography. J Hepatol 2012; 56:129-36.
33. Eefsen M, Dethloff T, Frederiksen H-J, Hauerberg J, Hansen BA, Larsen FS. Comparison of terlipressin and noradrenalin on cerebral perfusion, intracranial pressure and cerebral extracellular concentrations of lactate and pyruvate in patients with acute liver failure in need of inotropic support. J Hepatol 2007; 47:381-6.
34. Etogo-Asse F-E, Vincent RP, Hughes SA, et al. High density lipoprotein in patients with liver failure: relation to sepsis, adrenal function and outcome of illness. Liver Int 2012; 32:128-36.
35. Vaquero J. Therapeutic hypothermia in the management of acute liver failure. Neurochem Int 2012; 60:723-35.
36. Desjardins P, Du T, Jiang W, Peng L, Butterworth R. Pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy and brain edema in acute liver failure: role of glutamine redefined. Neurochem Int 2012;60:690-6.
37. Bernal W, Hall C, Karvellas CJ, Auzinger G, Sizer E, Wendon J. Arterial ammonia and clinical risk factors for encephalopathy and intracranial hypertension in acute liver failure. Hepatology 2007;46:1844-52.
38. Kitzberger R, Funk GC, Holzinger U, et al. Severity of organ failure is an independent predictor of intracranial hypertension in acute liver failure. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2009; 7:1000-6.
39. Butterworth RF. Hepatic encephalopathy: a central neuroinflammatory disorder? Hepatology 2011; 53:1372-6.
40. Kumar R, Shalimar, Sharma H, et al. Persistent hyperammonemia is associated with complications and poor outcomes in patients with acute liver failure. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2012; 10:925-31.
41. Acharya SK, Bhatia V, Sreenivas V, Khanal S, Panda SK. Efficacy of L-ornithine L-aspartate in acute liver failure: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Gastroenterology 2009; 136: 2159-68.
42. Murphy N, Auzinger G, Bernal W, Wendon J. The effect of hypertonic sodium chloride on intracranial pressure in patients with acute liver failure. Hepatology 2004; 39:464-70.
43. Jalan R, Olde Damink SW, Deutz NE, Hayes PC, Lee A. Moderate hypothermia in patients with acute liver failure and uncontrolled intracranial hypertension. Gastroenterology 2004; 127:1338-46.
44. Larsen FS, Murphy N, Bernal W, et al. Prophylactic effect of mild hypothermia to prevent brain edema in patients with acute liver failure: results of a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. J Hepatol 2011;54:Suppl:S26.
45. Vaquero J, Fontana RJ, Larson AM, et al. Complications and use of intracranial pressure monitoring in patients with acute liver failure and severe encephalopathy. Liver Transpl 2005; 11:1581-9.
46. Wendon J, Lee W. Encephalopathy and cerebral edema in the setting of acute liver failure: pathogenesis and management. Neurocrit Care 2008; 9:97-102.
47. Leithead JA, Ferguson JW, Bates CM, et al. The systemic inflammatory response syndrome is predictive of renal dysfunction in patients with non-paracetamol-induced acute liver failure. Gut 2009; 58:443-9.
48. O’Riordan A, Brummell Z, Sizer E, et al. Acute kidney injury in patients admitted to a liver intensive therapy unit with paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Nephrol
Dial Transplant 2011; 26:3501-8.
49. Davenport A. Continuous renal replacement therapies in patients with liver disease. Semin Dial 2009; 22:169-72.
50. Walsh TS, Wigmore SJ, Hopton P, Richardson R, Lee A. Energy expenditure in acetaminophen-induced fulminant hepatic failure. Crit Care Med 2000; 28:649-54.
51. Plauth M, Cabré E, Riggio O, et al. ESPEN guidelines on enteral nutrition: liver disease. Clin Nutr 2006; 25:285-94.
52. Simpson KJ, Bates CM, Henderson NC, et al. The utilization of liver transplantation in the management of acute liver failure: comparison between acetaminophen and non-acetaminophen etiologies. Liver Transpl 2009; 15:600-9.
53. O’Grady JG, Alexander GJ, Hayllar KM, Williams R. Early indicators of prognosis in fulminant hepatic failure. Gastroenterology 1989; 97:439-45.
54. McPhail MJW, Wendon JA, Bernal W. Meta-analysis of performance of Kings’ College Hospital Criteria in prediction of outcome in non-paracetamol-induced acute liver failure. J Hepatol 2010; 53:492-9.
55. Germani G, Theocharidou E, Adam R, et al. Liver transplantation for acute liver failure in Europe: outcomes over 20 years from the ELTR database. J Hepatol 2012;57:288-96.
56. Bernal W, Cross TJS, Auzinger G, et al. Outcome after wait-listing for emergency liver transplantation in acute liver failure: a single centre experience. J Hepatol 2009;50:306-13.
57. Hughes RD, Mitry RR, Dhawan A. Current status of hepatocyte transplantation. Transplantation 2012; 93:342-7.
58. Stutchfield BM, Simpson K, Wigmore SJ. Systematic review and meta-analysis of survival following extracorporeal liver support. Br J Surg 2011; 98:623-31.
59. Tritto G, Davies NA, Jalan R. Liver replacement therapy. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2012; 33:70-9.
60. Saliba F, Camus C, Durand F, et al. Albumin dialysis with a noncell artificial liver support device in patients with acute liver failure: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2013; 159:522-31.
61. Demetriou AA, Brown RS Jr, Busuttil RW, et al. Prospective, randomized, multicenter, controlled trial of a bioartificial liver in treating acute liver failure. Ann Surg 2004; 239:660-7.
62. Larsen FS, Schmidt LE, Wendon J, et al. Liver assisting with high-volume plasma exchange in patients with acute liver failure. Hepatology 2010; 52:376A. abstract.
ComentariosUsted debe estar registrado para expresar su opinión. Si ya es usuario de IntraMed o desea registrase como nuevo usuario, ingrese aquí