Un problema sanitario importante | 29 OCT 12
Tratamiento precoz del traumatismo craneoencefálico grave
En este trabajo se muestran los conocimientos actuales y sus limitaciones, las innovaciones en la investigación y sus consecuencias médicas. Los autores creen que habrá más progresos en el campo del traumatismo craneoencefálico grave en la próxima década.
Autor: Dres. Rosenfeld JV, Maas AI, Bragge P, Morganti-Kossmann MC Lancet 2012; 380: 1088–98.
INDICE:  1. Artículo | 2. Referencias

 1 Abelson-Mitchell N. Epidemiology and prevention of head injuries: literature review. J Clin Nurs 2008; 17: 46–57.
 2 Maas AI, Stocchetti N, Bullock R. Moderate and severe traumatic brain injury in adults. Lancet Neurol 2008; 7: 728–41.
 3 Ling G, Bandak F, Armonda R, Grant G, Ecklund J. Explosive blast neurotrauma. J Neurotrauma 2009;  26: 815–25.
 4 Baguley IJ, Nott MT, Howle AA, et al. Late mortality after severe traumatic brain injury in New South Wales: a multicentre study. Med J Aust 2012; 196: 40–45.
 5 Faul M, Wald M, Rutland-Brown W, Sullivent E, Sattin R. Using a cost-benefi t analysis to estimate outcomes of a clinical treatment guideline: testing the Brain Trauma Foundation guidelines for the treatment of severe traumatic brain injury. J Trauma 2007; 63: 1271–78.
 6 Rayan N, Barnes S, Fleming N, et al. Barriers to compliance with evidence-based care in trauma. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2012; 72: 585–93.
 7 Gabbe BJ, Lyons RA, Lecky FE, et al. Comparison of mortality following hospitalisation for isolated head injury in England and Wales, and Victoria, Australia. PLoS One 2011; 6: e20545.
 8 Saatman KE, Duhaime AC, Bullock R, Maas AI, Valadka A, Manley GT. Classifi cation of traumatic brain injury  for targeted therapies. J Neurotrauma 2008; 25: 719–38.
 9 Whyte J, Vasterling J, Manley GT. Common data elements for research on traumatic brain injury and psychological health: current status and future development. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2010; 91: 1692–96.
 10 NINDS common data elements: traumatic brain injury . 2012. http://www.commondataelements.ninds.nih.gov/TBI.aspx#tab=Data_Standards (accessed Feb 14, 2012).
 11 Kalia LV, Kalia SK, Salter MW. NMDA receptors in clinical neurology: excitatory times ahead. Lancet Neurol 2008; 7: 742–55.
 12 Bains M, Hall ED. Antioxidant therapies in traumatic brain and spinal cord injury. Biochim Biophys Acta 2012; 1822: 675–84.
 13 Saatman KE, Creed J, Raghupathi R. Calpain as a therapeutic target in traumatic brain injury. Neurotherapeutics 2010; 7:31–42.
14 Morganti-Kossmann MC, Satgunaseelan L, Bye N, Kossmann T. Modulation of immune response by head injury. Injury 2007; 38: 1392–400.
 15 Tan PG, Cincotta M, Clavisi O, et al. Review article: Prehospital fluid management in traumatic brain injury. Emerg Med Australas 2011; 23: 665–76.
 16 von Elm E, Schoettker P, Henzi I, Osterwalder J, Walder B. Pre-hospital tracheal intubation in patients with traumatic brain injury: systematic review of current evidence.  Br J Anaesth 2009; 103: 371–86.
17 Bernard SA, Nguyen V, Cameron P, et al. Prehospital rapid sequence intubation improves functional outcome for patients with severe traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Surg 2010; 252: 959–65.
 18 Ryynanen OP, Iirola T, Reitala J, Palve H, Malmivaara A. Is advanced life support better than basic life support in prehospital care? A systematic review. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2010; 18: 62.
 19 Bullock MR. Hyperoxia. J Neurosurg 2008; 109: 421–23.
 20 Diringer MN, Aiyagari V, Zazulia AR, Videen TO, Powers WJ. Effect of hyperoxia on cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen measured using positron emission tomography in patients with acute severe head injury. J Neurosurg 2007; 106: 526–29.
 21 Hlatky R, Valadka AB, Gopinath SP, Robertson CS. Brain tissue oxygen tension response to induced hyperoxia reduced in hypoperfused brain. J Neurosurg 2008; 108: 53–58.
 22 Rockswold SB, Rockswold GL, Defillo A. Hyperbaric oxygen in traumatic brain injury . Neurol Res 2007; 29: 162–72.
 23 De Deyne CS. Therapeutic hypothermia and traumatic brain injury. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2010; 23: 258–62.
 24 Sinclair HL, Andrews PJ. Bench-to-bedside review: hypothermia in traumatic brain injury. Crit Care 2010; 14: 204.
 25 Dietrich WD, Bramlett HM. The evidence for hypothermia as a neuroprotectant in traumatic brain injury . Neurotherapeutics 2010; 7: 43–50.
 26 Sydenham E, Roberts I, Alderson P. Hypothermia for traumatic head injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009; 2: CD001048.
 27 Maas A, Stocchetti N. Hypothermia and the complexity of trials in patients with traumatic brain injury. Lancet Neurol 2011; 10: 111–13.
 28 Finkelstein RA, Alam HB. Induced hypothermia for trauma: current research and practice. J Intensive Care Med 2010; 25: 205–26.
 29 Christian E, Zada G, Sung G, Giannotta SL. A review of selective hypothermia in the management of traumatic brain injury. Neurosurgical Focus 2008; 25: E9.
 30 Clifton GL, Valadka A, Zygun D, et al. Very early hypothermia induction in patients with severe brain injury (the National Acute Brain Injury Study: Hypothermia II): a randomised trial. Lancet Neurol 2011; 10: 131–39.
31 Edwards P, Arango M, Balica L, et al. Final results of MRC CRASH, a randomised placebo-controlled trial of intravenous corticosteroid in adults with head injury—outcomes at 6 months. Lancet 2005; 365: 1957–59.
32 Ghigo E, Masel B, Aimaretti G, et al. Consensus guidelines on screening for hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj 2005; 19: 711–24.
33 Klose M, Juul A, Struck J, Morgenthaler NG, Kosteljanetz M, Feldt-Rasmussen U. Acute and long-term pituitary insufficiency in traumatic brain injury: a prospective single-centre study. Clin Endocrinol 2007; 67: 598–606.
34  Sen AP, Gulati A. Use of magnesium in traumatic brain injury. Neurotherapeutics 2010; 7: 91–99.
35 Temkin NR, Anderson GD, Winn HR, et al. Magnesium sulfate for neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Neurol 2007; 6: 29–38.
36 Wible EF, Laskowitz DT. Statins in traumatic brain injury. Neurotherapeutics 2010; 7: 62–73.
37 Lu D, Qu C, Goussev A, Jiang H, et al. Statins increase neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, reduce delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA3 region, and improve spatial learning in rat after traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma 2007; 24: 1132–46.
38 Li B, Mahmood A, Lu D, et al. Simvastatin attenuates microglial cells and astrocyte activation and decreases interleukin-1beta level after traumatic brain injury. Neurosurgery 2009;  65: 179–85.
39 Tapia-Perez JH, Sanchez-Aguilar M, Torres-Corzo JG, et al. Eff ect of rosuvastatin on amnesia and disorientation after traumatic brain injury (NCT003229758). J Neurotrauma 2008; 25: 1011–17.
40 Schneider EB, Efron DT, MacKenzie EJ, Rivara FP, Nathens AB, Jurkovich GJ. Premorbid statin use is associated with improved survival and functional outcomes in older head-injured individuals. J Trauma 2011; 71: 815–19.
41 Cekic M, Stein DG. Traumatic brain injury and aging: is a combination of progesterone and vitamin D hormone a simple solution to a complex problem? Neurotherapeutics. 2010; 7: 81–90.
42 Schumacher M, Guennoun R, Ghoumari A, et al. Novel perspectives for progesterone in hormone replacement therapy, with special reference to the nervous system. Endocr Rev 2007; 28: 387–439.
43 Mazzeo AT, Beat A, Singh A, Bullock MR. The role of mitochondrial transition pore, and its modulation, in traumatic brain injury and delayed neurodegeneration after TBI.  Exp Neurol 2009; 218: 363–70.
44 Mbye LH, Singh IN, Carrico KM, Saatman KE, Hall ED. Comparative neuroprotective eff ects of cyclosporin A and NIM811, a nonimmunosuppressive cyclosporin A analog, following traumatic brain injury. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2009; 29: 87–97.
45 Buki A, Okonkwo DO, Povlishock JT. Postinjury cyclosporin A administration limits axonal damage and disconnection in traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma 1999; 16: 511–21.
46 Brines M, Cerami A. Emerging biological roles for erythropoietin in the nervous system. Nat Rev Neurosci 2005; 6: 484–94.
47 Cherian L, Goodman JC, Robertson C. Neuroprotection with erythropoietin administration following controlled cortical impact injury in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2007; 322: 789–94.
48 Siren AL, Fasshauer T, Bartels C, Ehrenreich H. Therapeutic potential of erythropoietin and its structural or functional variants in the nervous system.  Neurotherapeutics 2009; 6: 108–27.
49 Shakur H, Roberts I, Bautista R, et al. Effects of tranexamic acid on death, vascular occlusive events, and blood transfusion in trauma patients with significant haemorrhage (CRASH-2): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2010; 376: 23–32.
50 Perel P, Salman RAS, Constain A, et al. Eff ect of tranexamic acid in traumatic brain injury: a nested randomised, placebo controlled trial (CRASH-2 Intracranial Bleeding Study). BMJ 2011; 343: d3795.
51 Bullock MR, Chesnut R, Ghajar J, et al. Guidelines for the surgical management of traumatic brain injury. Neurosurgery 2006; 58 (3 suppl): S2–62.
52 Mendelow D, Gregson B, Mitchell P, et al. STITCH (Trauma) trial. 2012. http://research.ncl.ac.uk/trauma.STITCH/ (accessed Jan 30, 2012).
53 Bell RS, Mossop CM, Dirks MS, et al. Early decompressive craniectomy for severe penetrating and closed head injury during wartime. Neurosurgical Focus 2010; 28: E1.
54 Sahuquillo J, Arikan F. Decompressive craniectomy for the treatment of refractory high intracranial pressure in traumatic brain injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; 1: CD003983.
55 Stiver SI. Complications of decompressive craniectomy for traumatic brain injury. Neurosurgical Focus 2009; 26: E7.
56 Cooper DJ, Rosenfeld JV, Murray L, et al. Decompressive craniectomy in diff use traumatic brain injury. N Engl J Med 2011; 364: 1493–502.
57 Timmons SD, Ullman JS, Eisenberg HM. Craniectomy in diffuse traumatic brain injury. N Engl J Med 2011; 365: 373.
58 Hutchinson PJ. The RESCUEicp Study: randomised evaluation of surgery with craniectomy for uncontrollable elevation of intra-cranial pressure. 2011. http://www.rescueicp.com (accessed Aug 17, 2012).
59 Taylor A, Butt W, Rosenfeld J, et al. A randomized trial of very early decompressive craniectomy in children with traumatic brain injury and sustained intracranial hypertension. Childs Nerv Syst 2001; 17: 154–62.
60 Jiang JY, Xu W, Li WP, et al. Efficacy of standard trauma craniectomy for refractory intracranial hypertension with severe traumatic brain injury: a multicenter, prospective, randomized controlled study. J Neurotrauma 2005; 22: 623–28.
61 Qiu W, Guo C, Shen H, et al. Effects of unilateral decompressive craniectomy on patients with unilateral acute post-traumatic brain swelling after severe traumatic brain injury. Crit Care 2009; 13: R185.
62 Farin A, Liu CY, Langmoen IA, Apuzzo ML. Biological restoration of central nervous system architecture and function: part 3-stem cell- and cell-based applications and realities in the biological management of central nervous system disorders: traumatic, vascular, and epilepsy disorders. Neurosurgery 2009; 65: 831–59.
63 Walker PA, Shah SK, Cox CS. Progenitor cell therapies as a novel treatment for traumatic brain injury: A pathway towards neuroprotection. Therapy 2011; 8: 507–09.
64 Cox Jr CS, Baumgartner JE, Harting MT, et al. Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell therapy for severe traumatic brain injury in children. Neurosurgery 2011; 68: 588–600.
65 Zhang ZX, Guan LX, Zhang K, Zhang Q, Dai LJ. A combined procedure to deliver autologous mesenchymal stromal cells to patients with traumatic brain injury. Cytotherapy 2008; 10: 134–39.
66 Bratton SL, Chestnut RM, Ghajar J, et al. Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. VI. Indications for intracranial pressure monitoring. J Neurotrauma 2007; 24 (suppl 1) : S37–44.
 67 Carney N, Lujan S, Dikmen S, et al. Intracranial pressure monitoring in severe traumatic brain injury in Latin America: process and methods for a multi-center randomized controlled trial. J Neurotrauma 2012; 29: 2022–29.
 68 Cecil S, Chen PM, Callaway SE, Rowland SM, Adler DE, Chen JW. Traumatic brain injury: advanced multimodal neuromonitoring from theory to clinical practice. Crit Care Nurse 2011;  31: 25–36.
 69 Wright WL. Multimodal monitoring in the ICU: when could it be useful?. J Neurol Sci 2007; 261: 10–15.
70 Figaji AA, Zwane E, Thompson C, et al. Brain tissue oxygen tension monitoring in pediatric severe traumatic lesión cerebral. Part 1: relationship with outcome. Childs Nerv Syst 2009;  25: 1325–33.
71 Figaji AA, Zwane E, Thompson C, et al. Brain tissue oxygen tension monitoring in pediatric severe traumatic brain injury. Part 2: relationship with clinical, physiological, and treatment factors. Childs Nerv Syst 2009; 25: 1335–43.
 72 Stiefel MF, Udoetuk JD, Spiotta AM, et al. Conventional neurocritical care and cerebral oxygenation after traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg 2006; 105: 568–75.
 73  Nangunoori R, Maloney-Wilensky E, Stiefel M, et al. Brain tissue oxygen-based therapy and outcome after severe traumatic brain injury: a systematic literature review.  Neurocrit Care 2012; 17: 131–38.
 74 Narotam PK, Morrison JF, Nathoo N. Brain tissue oxygen monitoring in traumatic brain injury and major trauma: outcome analysis of a brain tissue oxygen-directed therapy. J Neurosurg 2009; 111: 672–82.
 75 Stiefel MF, Spiotta A, Gracias VH, et al. Reduced mortality rate in patients with severe traumatic lesión cerebral treated with brain tissue oxygen monitoring. J Neurosurg 2005; 103: 805–11.
 76 Martini RP, Deem S, Yanez ND, et al. Management guided by brain tissue oxygen monitoring and outcome following severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg 2009; 111: 644–49.
 77 Diaz-Arrastia R, Bullock R, Le Roux P, Chesnut R. Brain tissue oxygen monitoring in traumatic brain injury (TBI) (BOOST 2). 2012. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00974259 (accessed Feb 1, 2012).
78 Bratton SL, Chestnut RM, Ghajar J, et al. Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. X. Brain oxygen monitoring and thresholds. J Neurotrauma 2007; 24 (suppl 1) : S65–70.
79 Goodman JC, Robertson CS. Microdialysis: is it ready for prime time? Curr Opin Crit Care 2009; 15: 110–17.
80 Czosnyka M, Brady K, Reinhard M, Smielewski P, Steiner LA. Monitoring of cerebrovascular autoregulation: facts, myths, and missing links. Neurocrit Care 2009; 10: 373–86.
81 Jaeger M, Dengl M, Meixensberger J, Schuhmann MU. Effects of cerebrovascular pressure reactivity-guided optimization of cerebral perfusion pressure on brain tissue oxygenation after traumatic brain injury. Crit Care Med 2010; 38: 1343–47.
82 White H, Venkatesh B. Cerebral perfusion pressure in neurotrauma: a review. Anesth Analg 2008; 107: 979–88.
83 Waziri A, Claassen J, Stuart RM, et al. Intracortical electroencephalography in acute brain injury. Ann Neurol 2009; 66: 366–77.
84 Hartings JA, Strong AJ, Fabricius M, et al. Spreading depolarizations and late secondary insults after traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma 2009; 26: 1857–66.
85 Hartings JA, Bullock MR, Okonkwo DO, et al. Spreading depolarisations and outcome after traumatic brain injury: a prospective observational study. Lancet Neurol 2011; 10: 10
86 Sakowitz OW, Kiening KL, Krajewski KL, et al. Preliminary evidence that ketamine inhibits spreading depolarizations in acute human brain injury. Stroke 2009; 40: e519–22.
87 Andrews PJ, Citerio G, Longhi L, Polderman K, Sahuquillo Vajkoczy P. NICEM consensus on neurological monitoring neurological disease. Intensive Care Med 2008; 4: 1362–70.
88 Kou Z, Wu Z, Tong KA, et al. The role of advanced MR imaging findings as biomarkers of traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil 2010; 25: 267–82.
89 Shah S, Yallampalli R, Merkley TL, et al. Diffusion tensor imaging and volumetric analysis of the ventral striatum in adults with traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj 2012; 26: 201–10.
90 Shin SS, Verstynen T, Pathak S, et al. High-definition fiber for assessment of neurological deficit in a case of traumatic injury: finding, visualizing, and interpreting small sites of damage. J Neurosurg 2012; 116: 1062–69.
91 Betz JF, Zhuo J, Roy A, Shanmuganathan K, Gullapalli RP Prognostic value of diffusion tensor imaging parameters in traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma 2012; 29: 1292–305.
92 Stein SC, Georgoff  P, Meghan S, Mizra K, Sonnad SS. 150 years of treating severe traumatic brain injury: a systematic review of progress in mortality. J Neurotrauma 2010; 27: 1343–53.
93 Lu J, Marmarou A, Choi S, Maas A, Murray G, Steyerberg EW. Mortality from traumatic brain injury. Acta Neurochir Suppl 2005; 95: 281–85.
94 Lingsma HF, Roozenbeek B, Steyerberg EW, Murray GD, Maas AI. Early prognosis in traumatic brain injury: from prophecies to predictions. Lancet Neurol 2010; 9: 543–54.
95 Murray GD, Butcher I, McHugh GS, et al. Multivariable prognostic analysis in traumatic brain injury: results from the IMPACT study. J Neurotrauma 2007; 24: 329–37.
96 Bohmer AE, Oses JP, Schmidt AP, et al. Neuron-specific enolase, S100B, and glial fibrillary acidic protein levels as outcome predictors in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Neurosurgery 2011; 68: 1624–30.
97 Lesko M. Comparing the prognostic performance of S100B with prognostic models in traumatic brain injury. Emerg Med J 2010; 27: A2.
98 Vos PE, Jacobs B, Andriessen TMJC, et al. GFAP and S100B are biomarkers of traumatic brain injury: an observational cohort study. Neurology 2010; 75: 1786–93.
99 Fraser DD, Close TE, Rose KL, et al. Severe traumatic brain injury in children elevates glial fibrillary acidic protein in cerebrospinal fluid and serum. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2011; 12: 319–24.
100 Mondello S, Linnet A, Buki A, et al. Clinical utility of serum levels of ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase as a biomarker for severe traumatic brain injury. Neurosurgery 2012; 70: 666–75.
101 Czeiter E, Mondello S, Kovacs N, et al. Brain injury biomarkers may improve the predictive power of the IMPACToutcome calculator. Acta Neurochirurgica 2011; 153: 1882.
102 Berger RP, Hayes RL, Richichi R, Beers SR, Wang KK. Serum concentrations of ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 and alphaII-spectrin breakdown product 145 kDa correlate with outcome after pediatric TBI. J Neurotrauma 2012; 29: 162–67.
103 Mushkudiani NA, Hukkelhoven CW, Hernandez AV, et al. A systematic review finds methodological improvements necessary for prognostic models in determining traumatic brain injury outcomes. J Clin Epidemiol 2008; 61: 331–43.
104 Perel P, Arango M, Clayton T, et al. Predicting outcome after traumatic brain injury: practical prognostic models based on large cohort of international patients. BMJ 2008; 336: 425–29.
105 Steyerberg EW, Mushkudiani N, Perel P, et al. Predicting outcome after traumatic brain injury: development and international validation of prognostic scores based on admission characteristics. PLoS Med 2008; 5: e165.
106 Roozenbeek B, Lingsma H, Lecky F, et al. Prediction of outcome after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury: external validation of the IMPACT and CRASH prognostic models. Crit Care Med 2012; 40: 1096–17.
107 Yeoman P, Pattani H, Silcocks P, Owen V, Fuller G. Validation of the IMPACT outcome prediction score using the Nottingham Head Injury Register dataset. J Trauma 2011; 71: 387–92.
108 Maas AI, Menon DK, Lingsma HF, Pineda JA, Sandel ME, Manley GT. Re-orientation of clinical research in traumatic brain injury: report of an international workshop on comparative eff ectiveness research. J Neurotrauma 2012; 29: 32–46.
109 Kaitin KI, Milne CP. A dearth of new meds. Sci Am 2011; 305: 16.
 110 Kochanek PM, Bramlett H, Dietrich WD, et al. A novel multicenter preclinical drug screening and biomarker consortium for experimental traumatic brain injury: operation brain trauma therapy. J Trauma 2011; 71 (1 suppl) : S15–24.
111 Roozenbeek B, Lingsma H, Maas A. New considerations in the design of clinical trials for traumatic brain injury. Clin Investigation 2012; 2: 153–62.
112 Margulies S, Hicks R. Combination therapies for traumatic brain injury: prospective considerations. J Neurotrauma 2009; 26: 92



Usted debe ingresar al sitio con su cuenta de usuario IntraMed para ver los comentarios de sus colegas o para expresar su opinión. Si ya tiene una cuenta IntraMed o desea registrase, ingrese aquí