IntraMed - Artículos - Prevención del accidente cerebrovascular
Estrategias para la prevención primaria | 17 MAR 04
Prevención del accidente cerebrovascular
Conceptos sobre la importancia de los cambios en el estilo de vida, los tratamientos antihipertensivos, hipolipemiantes y antiagregantes plaquetarios.
(1)
Autor: Dres. Ezekowitz JA, Straus SE, Majumdar SR, McAlister FA Fuente: University of Alberta, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Edmonton, Alberta Am Fam Physician. 2003 Dec 15;68(12):2379-86.
Bibliografía
1. Bamford J, Sandercock P, Dennis M, Burn J, Warlow C. A prospective study of acute cerebrovascular disease in the community: the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project--1981-86. 2. Incidence, case fatality rates and overall outcome at one year of cerebral infarction, primary intracerebral and subarachnoid haemorrhage. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1990;53:16-22.

2. Anderson CS, Jamrozik KD, Broadhurst RJ, Stewart-Wynne EG. Predicting survival for 1 year among different subtypes of stroke. Results from the Perth Community Stroke Study. Stroke 1994;25:1935-44.

3. Straus SE, Majumdar SR, McAlister FA. New evidence for stroke prevention. Scientific review. JAMA 2002;288:1388-95.

4. Benson RT, Sacco RL. Stroke prevention: hypertension, diabetes, tobacco, and lipids. Neurol Clin 2000;18:309-19.

5. Bronner LL, Kanter DS, Manson JE. Primary prevention of stroke. N Engl J Med 1995;333:1392-400.

6. Elkind MS, Sacco RL. Stroke risk factors and stroke prevention. Semin Neurol 1998;18:429-40.

7. Goldstein LB, Adams R, Becker K, Furberg CD, Gorelick PB, Hademenos G, et al. Primary prevention of ischemic stroke: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association. Circulation 2001;103: 163-82.

8. Gorelick PB, Sacco RL, Smith DB, Alberts M, Mustone-Alexander L, Rader D, et al. Prevention of a first stroke: a review of guidelines and a multidisciplinary consensus statement from the National Stroke Association. JAMA 1999;281:1112-20.

9. Ashenden R, Silagy C, Weller D. A systematic review of the effectiveness of promoting lifestyle change in general practice. Fam Pract 1997;14: 160-76.

10. Lancaster T, Stead LF. Individual behavioural counselling for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002;(3):CD001292.

11. Law M, Tang JL. An analysis of the effectiveness of interventions intended to help people stop smoking. Arch Intern Med 1995;155:1933-41.

12. Rice VH, Stead LF. Nursing interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001; (3):CD001188.

13. Kawachi I, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Manson JE, Rosner B, et al. Smoking cessation and decreased risk of stroke in women. JAMA 1993; 269:232-6.

14. MacMahon S, Peto R, Cutler J, Collins R, Sorlie P, Neaton J, et al. Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Part 1, prolonged differences in blood pressure: prospective observational studies corrected for the regression dilution bias. Lancet 1990;335:765-74.

15. Perry HM Jr, Davis BR, Price TR, Applegate WB, Fields WS, Guralnik JM, et al. Effect of treating isolated systolic hypertension on the risk of developing various types and subtypes of stroke: the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP). JAMA 2000;284:465-71.

16. Psaty BM, Smith NL, Siscovick DS, Koepsell TD, Weiss NS, Heckbert SR, et al. Health outcomes associated with antihypertensive therapies used as first-line agents. A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 1997;277:739-45.

17. Rodgers A, MacMahon S, Gamble G, Slattery J, Sandercock P, Warlow C. Blood pressure and risk of stroke in patients with cerebrovascular disease. The United Kingdom Transient Ischaemic Attack Collaborative Group. BMJ 1996;313:147.

18. Wright JM, Lee CH, Chambers GK. Systematic review of antihypertensive therapies: does the evidence assist in choosing a first-line drug? CMAJ 1999;161:25-32.

19. Gueyffier F, Bulpitt C, Boissel JP, Schron E, Ekbom T, Fagard R, et al. Antihypertensive drugs in very old people: a subgroup meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. INDANA Group. Lancet 1999; 353(9155):793-6.

20. Staessen JA, Gasowski J, Wang JG, Thijs L, Den Hond E, Boissel JP, et al. Risks of untreated and treated isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly: meta-analysis of outcome trials. Lancet 2000;355: 865-72.

21. van den Hoogen PC, Feskens EJ, Nagelkerke NJ, Menotti A, Nissinen A, Kromhout D. The relation between blood pressure and mortality due to coronary heart disease among men in different parts of the world. Seven Countries Study Research Group. N Engl J Med 2000;342:1-8.

22. Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Berlin JA, Townsend RR, Asch DA. Physicians' preferences for active-controlled versus placebo-controlled trials of new antihypertensive drugs. J Gen Intern Med 2002;17:689-95.

23. McAlister FA. Using evidence to resolve clinical controversies: is aggressive antihypertensive therapy harmful? Evid-Based Med [United Kingdom] 1999;4:4-6.

24. Neal B, MacMahon S, Chapman N. Effects of ACE inhibitors, calcium antagonists, and other blood- pressure-lowering drugs: results of prospectively designed overviews of randomised trials. Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration. Lancet 2000;356:1955-64.

25. McAlister FA, Zarnke KB, Campbell NR, Feldman RD, Levine M, Mahon J, et al. The 2001 Canadian recommendations for the management of hypertension: part two--therapy. Can J Cardiol 2002; 18:625-41.

26. Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs diuretic: the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). JAMA 2002; 288:2981-97.

27. Cholesterol, diastolic blood pressure, and stroke: 13,000 strokes in 450,000 people in 45 prospective cohorts. Prospective studies collaboration. Lancet 1995;346:1647-53.

28. Benfante R, Yano K, Hwang LJ, Curb JD, Kagan A, Ross W. Elevated serum cholesterol is a risk factor for both coronary heart disease and thromboembolic stroke in Hawaiian Japanese men. Implications of shared risk. Stroke 1994;25:814-20.

29. Byington RP, Davis BR, Plehn JF, White HD, Baker J, Cobbe SM, et al. Reduction of stroke events with pravastatin: the Prospective Pravastatin Pooling (PPP) Project. Circulation 2001;103:387-92.

30. Iso H, Jacobs DR Jr, Wentworth D, Neaton JD, Cohen JD. Serum cholesterol levels and six-year mortality from stroke in 350,977 men screened for the multiple risk factor intervention trial. N Engl J Med 1989;320:904-10.

31. Plutzky J, Ridker PM. Statins for stroke: the second story? Circulation 2001;103:348-50.

32. Bucher HC, Griffith LE, Guyatt GH. Effect of HMGcoA reductase inhibitors on stroke. A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Ann Intern Med 1998;128:89-95.

33. Warshafsky S, Packard D, Marks SJ, Sachdeva N, Terashita DM, Kaufman G, et al. Efficacy of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors for prevention of stroke. J Gen Intern Med 1999;14:763-74.

34. Executive summary of the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 2001;285:2486-97.

35. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. N Engl J Med 1993;329:977-86.

36. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Lancet 1998;352:837-53.

37. Meinert CL, Knatterud GL, Prout TE, Klimt CR. A study of the effects of hypoglycemic agents on vascular complications in patients with adult-onset diabetes. II. Mortality results. Diabetes 1970;19 (suppl):747-830.

38. Meltzer S, Leiter L, Daneman D, Gerstein HC, Lau D, Ludwig S, et al. 1998 clinical practice guidelines for the management of diabetes in Canada. Canadian Diabetes Association. CMAJ 1998;159(suppl 8):S1-29.

39. Woolf SH, Davidson MB, Greenfield S, Bell HS, Ganiats TG, Hagen MD, et al. Controlling blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An evidence-based policy statement by the American Academy of Family Physicians and American Diabetes Association. J Fam Pract 2000;49: 453-60.

40. Feinberg WM, Blackshear JL, Laupacis A, Kronmal R, Hart RG. Prevalence, age distribution, and gender of patients with atrial fibrillation. Analysis and implications. Arch Intern Med 1995;155:469-73.

41. Wolf PA, Abbott RD, Kannel WB. Atrial fibrillation: a major contributor to stroke in the elderly. The Framingham Study. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1561-4.

42. Albers GW, Dalen JE, Laupacis A, Manning WJ, Petersen P, Singer DE. Antithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation. Chest 2001;119(1 suppl):194S-206S.

43. Bosch J, Yusuf S, Pogue J, Sleight P, Lonn E, Rangoonwala B, et al. Use of ramipril in preventing stroke: double blind randomised trial. BMJ 2002; 324:699-702.

44. Yusuf S, Sleight P, Pogue J, Bosch J, Davies R, Dagenais G. Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. N Engl J Med 2000;342:145-53.

45. Collaborative overview of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy--I: prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke by prolonged antiplatelet therapy in various categories of patients. Antiplatelet Trialists' Collaboration. BMJ 1994;308:81-106. Hart RG, Halperin JL, McBride R, Benavente O, Man-Son-Hing M, Kronmal RA. Aspirin for the primary prevention of stroke and other major vascular events: meta-analysis and hypotheses. Arch Neurol 2000;57:326-32.

46. D'Agostino RB, Wolf PA, Belanger AJ, Kannel WB. Stroke risk profile: adjustment for antihypertensive medication. The Framingham Study. Stroke 1994; 25:40-3.

(1)

Comentarios

Usted debe estar registrado para expresar su opinión. Si ya es usuario de IntraMed o desea registrase como nuevo usuario, ingrese aquí
Contenidos relacionados
Los editores le recomiendan continuar con las siguientes lecturas:
Los más...
Términos y condiciones de uso | Todos los derechos reservados | Copyright 1997-2014